Journal of Shiatsu Society of Japan Vol.05 – 2016

Anti-stress effect of Shiatsu to the Anterior Cervical Region ―Study based on changes to salivary amylase secretion―

Tomochika Eto


Abstract : Past research has suggested that shiatsu to the anterior cervical region may stimulate secretion of anti-stress hormones. Building on this past research, this report examined effects of shiatsu to the anterior cervical region on salivary amylase secretion and heart rates of twelve healthy subjects. Contrary to our hypothesis, some subjects showed an increase in salivary amylase secretion while others showed a decrease, and salivary amylase secretion did not correlate with the decrease in heart rate. Five minutes after treatment, however, both salivary amylase secretion and heart rate significantly decreased. These results suggest that shiatsu to the anterior cervical region may decrease stress.
Keywords: shiatsu anterior cervical region, salvary amylase, heart rate, stress

Effects of Shiatsu Therapy on Lumbar Disc Herniation

Ryo Sasaki


Abstract : With the exception of some cases that may require surgery due to severity of the symptoms, conservative medical treatment is the usual approach used for lumbar disc herniation. However, not many conservative medical treatments are evidence-based.
Here we report on a case of lumbar disc herniation with severe symptoms that was treated with prescription analgesics and shiatsu therapy. Treatment resulted in a major improvement as measured on the Visual Analogue Scale and contributed to improving the patient’s quality of life.
Shiatsu therapy may control factors that amplify the pain of lumbar disc herniation, including reflex muscle tonus, sympathetic nervous system agitation, and psychological stress, which are exacerbated by severe acute-stage pain. This case suggests that shiatsu therapy may be a valuable treatment option among conservative medical treatments.
Keywords: lumbar disc herniation, pain, numbness, shiatsu, acute-stage shiatsu, conservative medical treatment for herniation

Shiatsu Therapy for a Patient with Inferred Greater Occipital Neuralgia

Shinpei Oki


Abstract : This report examines the case of a patient who received shiatsu treatments for inferred greater occipital neuralgia, complaining of pain across the left occipital, parietal, and frontal areas of his head. Following 18 shiatsu treatments focusing mainly on the cervical and upper extremity regions, the symptoms were relieved. This result is significant considering the expected increase in patients suffering from greater occipital neuralgia.
Keywords: shiatsu, greater occipital neuralgia

Shiatsu on a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes―Effect of Namikoshi Standard Full Body―

Tsuyoshi Honda


Abstract : Type 2 diabetes is classified as a lifestyle-related disease, and the number of diabetic and pre-diabetic patients has been increasing in recent years. This report examines the case of a patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes seven years previously, who received ongoing Namikoshistandard full body shiatsu treatments. After 20 treatments, the patient’s hemoglobin A1c level (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program) decreased by 0.5 percent compared to the first treatment. Further shiatsu treatment and monitoring is required for this case.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, hemoglobin A1c (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), Namikoshi standard full body shiatsu

Volunteer Shiatsu at Rekisen Marathon : Survey Report

Kyosuke Komatsu / Tsuyoshi Honda, Yasutaka Kaneko, Shinpei Oki


Abstract : The Forty-First Rekisen Marathon was held on November 29th, 2015 at Koishikawa, Bunkyo Ward. We participated as volunteer shiatsu therapists and surveyed 31 runners (24 males and 7 females) before and after treatment. The runners were asked to describe their level of fatigue and pain on a 100mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and circle the areas on abody diagram where they felt fatigue or pain. Volunteers from Japan Shiatsu College treated the runners with Namikoshi Standard Shiatsu for between 15 and 30 minutes depending on their chief complaint. All runners showed post-treatment improvement as measured by the Visual Analog Scale. Concerning the body area that the runners felt fatigue or pain, the top reply was the posterior region of the left thigh, and the second was the posterior region of the left lower leg. VAS improvement may have been due to increased muscle flexibility following shiatsu treatment.
Keywords: marathon, runner, survey, Visual Analog Scale, shiatsu

Patient-based Assessment for Shiatsu Treatment

Shinpei Oki


Abstract : Patient-based assessment, which evaluates subjective complaints in daily life, is useful for evaluating the effects of shiatsu treatment. Various organizations and associations are offering such evaluation tools, an d this report examines practical evaluation tools for clinical practice among the free resources available.
Keywords: shiatsu, subjective evaluation, patient-based assessment

Shiatsu Therapy for a Patient with Post-mastectomy Pain and Limited Shoulder Joint Range of Motion Caused by Total Mastectomy

Masatoshi Miyashita


Abstract : This report examines the case of a patient who received shiatsu treatments following total mastectomy of the left breast in the treatment of breast cancer. Following treatment, relief of postsurgical pain and improvement in the shoulder joint’s range of motion were observed. Pain was treated using standard Namikoshi shiatsu techniques such as fluid pressure and suction pressure applied to the skin, and the shoulder joint was treated using a combination of pressure applications and mobilizations. We conclude that in this patient, these shiatsu techniques helped to relieve postsurgical pain and improve the shoulder joint’s range of motion.
Keywords: breast cancer, skin, scar, shoulder joint range of motion, mastectomy, post-mastectomy neurogenic pain, shiatsu, mobilization

Effects of Shiatsu Therapy on the Cobb Angle of a Female Patient in Her Twenties with Scoliosis

Sanae Sakuta


Abstract : This report examines the case of a female patient in her twenties diagnosed with lumbar idiopathic levoscoliosis who received 93 shiatsu treatments between 2013 and 2016. Following treatment, the Cobb angle was improved from 69.6. to 62.3.Relief of subjective symptoms such as back pain and severe menstrual cramps was also observed. We concluded that reducing muscle tension with shiatsu treatment resulted in improved spinal mobility leading to correction of leg length difference, asymmetric pelvis, tilted ribs, and unaligned spine.
Keywords: shiatsu, scoliosis, Cobb angle, spine

Journal of Shiatsu Society of Japan Vol.04 – 2015

Effects of Plantar Region Shiatsu Treatment on the Variance of Center of Gravity

Koichi Hoshino, Munetaka Hibi / Yosuke Ishizuka


Abstract : There are few studies on the effects of plantar region shiatsu treatment on the motor system. In this study, the effects of plantar region shiatsu treatment on balance in the upright position were verified using a stabilograph. Four healthy subjects underwent plantar region shiatsu treatment with each session lasting for 1 min and 42 s. Our results show no significant differences between the shiatsu group and the control group for total trajectory, outer circumference area, rectangle area, or effective value area. Revision of both the subject population and the methods used are needed for further research on this topic.
Keywords: Shiatsu, plantar region, variance of center of gravity, balance in the upright position

Measurement of the Psychological Influence of Full Body Shiatsu Therapy: a Case Report

Shinpei Oki


Abstract : With the aim of reducing psychological stress, a female patient in her twenties had three sessions of full body shiatsu therapy between 5/24/2015 and 6/7/2015. The psychological influence of the full body shiatsu therapy was measured using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). After the course of the full body shiatsu therapy, all the T-scores of the six factors improved. This suggests that the full body shiatsu therapy has a stress-relief effect, and further studies are required to verify this.
Keywords: shiatsu, stress, POMS

Shiatsu Therapy for a Patient with Suspected Peripheral Neuropathy while Diagnosed with Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

Ichiro Maruyama


Abstract : A patient with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and suspected peripheral neuropathy (flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities) was treated with shiatsu therapy with the aim of releasing dorsal muscle tension. After a course of 29 sessions of shiatsu therapy, the lower-limb motor function recovered. This suggested the presence of significant muscle hypertonicity alongside the spine was significantly related to the motor dysfunction caused by the peripheral neuropathy. Considering other reports on the improvement of muscle flexibility with shiatsu therapy, we conclude that in our patient, the release of muscle tension by the shiatsu therapy improved blood circulation and the range of motion of the spine, leading to recovery in motor function.
Keywords: flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities, shiatsu therapy, dorsal muscle tension

A case of posture correction by a combination of pressure application and exercise therapy

Genta Niikura


Abstract : Many people with subjective symptoms such as stiff shoulder or low back pain are encountered in clinical practice. Here we report a case where shiatsu therapy helped the patient achieve symptom relief and better posture. Shiatsu therapy not only released the muscle tension but also adjusted the joints. Shiatsu therapy involves a combination of pressure application and exercise therapy, and it is possible that this combination had effects on both muscles and joints and helped achieve the favorable outcomes in the present case.
Keywords: shiatsu therapy, pressure application, exercise therapy, posture correction

Effects of Inguinal Region Shiatsu Treatment on the Ability to Walk

Hiroki Koizumi / Yasutaka Kaneko


Abstract : The effects of inguinal region shiatsu treatment on the ability to walk were verified using the timed up and go test (TUG). The post-treatment time was shorter than the pre-treatment time. This result suggests that shiatsu treatment may improve the ability to walk at least temporarily.
Keywords: Timed Up and Go Test, iliopsoas muscle, inguinal region, shiatsu

Effects of Abdominal Region Shiatsu Based on Namikoshi Shiatsu Therapy’s Standard Procedures on Short-Distance Sprint Performance

Keisuke Okubo, Maho Nakano / Hiroyuki Ishizuka


Abstract : Ahead of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games, sports is receiving increasing attention in Japan. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of Namikoshi shiatsu therapy’s standard procedures on sport performance. After adequate warm-up, five 50-meter sprints separated by five-min-intervals were timed, and images were taken with a fixed camera to analyze its influences on posture. Twenty points on the abdomen, which were based on Namikoshi shiatsu therapy’s standard procedures, were treated three times before the first sprint and during each interval between the sprints. On a different day, splinters performed five 50-meter sprints separated by five-min-intervals in the supine position without shiatsu treatment. On an average, the shiatsu-treated group had shorter sprint times than the control group. When camera images were compared between the shiatsu-treated and control groups, differences were observed in twisting of the trunk, flexion of the knee joint, and stride length. These results suggest that the 20-point abdominal-region shiatsu based on Namikoshi shiatsu therapy’s standard procedures may have positive effects on the sprint performance.
Keywords: Shiatsu, run, sprint, abdominal region, abdominal pressure, trunk, exercise, time, 50m, track and field, manipulative therapy, angular motion, image, rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis muscle, obliquus internus abdominis muscle, Olympic, length of stride, twist, motion, ROM, range of joint motion, joint, load, track, race, performance, massage, start, dash, run, crouch start, running motion, abdominal region shiatsu based on Namikoshi shiatsu therapy’s standard procedures

Journal of Shiatsu Society of Japan Vol.03 – 2014

Shiatsu Therapy for Frozen Shoulder

Masatoshi Miyashita


Abstract : With a view to relieving pain around the left shoulder joint and improving range of the left shoulder motion, a sixty year old female patient with frozen shoulder was treated by shiatsu. The treatment of twelve sessions resulted in removing the pain and improving the range of the joint motion. As for the range of motion, the difference between the left and right shoulders was eliminated. Increasing muscle flexibility by shiatsu therapy may have potential to ease pain and to improve range of joint motion.

Shiatsu Treatment for Presbycusis

Mayumi Aizawa


Abstract : Aiming at circulation improvement of the inner ear and the brain, shiatsu treatment procedures have traditionally been established for patients with headache and / or dizziness. Since it is experimentally known among shiatsu therapists that shiatsu affects the inner ear and the brain, the author has been interested in the influence of shiatsu treatment over audibility. This is a case report of a patient with presbycusis treated by shiatsu. As a result of the observation of blood pressure, pulse, body temperature and VAS (Visual Analog Scale) of hearing loss, a fall in systolic blood pressure and a raise in body temperature were significant, while decrease in value of VAS was not significant. Given that post-treatment VAS exhibited a declining trend and the patient’s response to beep sound of a sphygmomanometer was improved after shiatsu treatment, however, shiatsu treatment could be potentially contribute to the treatment of presbycusis.

Finger-Floor Distance (FFD) Changes Due to Shiatsu Treatment of the Posterior Crural Region

Kyoichi Hoshino, Munetaka Hibi, Hiroyuki Ishizuka


Abstract : Standing forward flexion changes due to shiatsu stimulation of various regions have been verified and reported. Building on the past results, we researched standing forward flexion changes due to shiatsu stimulation of the posterior crural region. The research was conducted on 21 healthy subjects, and standing forward flexion was significantly improved by shiatsu stimulation of the right and left posterior femoral region for 2’ 24’’ compared to the non-stimulation group. The analysis on marking of caput fibulae also indicated that shiatsu stimulation of the posterior crural region eases tense triceps surae muscle and improves flexibility.

Heart Rate Changes of Horses Due to Shiatsu Treatment to the Anterior Cervical Region

Tomochika Etou


Abstract : Observing heart rate of horses, we studied whether non-human mammal reacts to the shiatsu treatment in the same way as the human body does. As the result, the significant decrease in heart rate due to the shiatsu treatment to the anterior cervical region was observed. Since the results of past studies regarding shiatsu treatment including case reports are corresponding to the physiological mechanism of animals’ cataleptic freezing reaction, it leads to a hypothesis that the shiatsu treatment to the anterior cervical region aims to secrete glucocorticoid by stimulating HPA axis.

Changes to Near Point of Accommodation Due to Shiatsu Stimulation of the Facial Region

Shinpei Oki


Abstract : Considering value of near point of accommodation as an objective indicator of visual performance, we examined the effectiveness of shiatsu treatment applied to the facial region in improving visual performance. Research was conducted on seven healthy adults, and shiatsu treatment of the facial region was carried out according to the basic Namikoshi shiatsu procedure. The research showed that the post-stimulation average value of near point of accommodation was significantly decreased compared to the pre-stimulation average value in the stimulation group. As for the non-stimulation group, on the other hand, there was not significant difference in average value of near point of accommodation between the pre-stimulation and the post-stimulation. The result indicates that basic Namikoshi shiatsu treatment of the facial region is effective in improving visual performance.

Effectiveness of Shiatsu Treatment Against Numbness of the Lower Extremities

Yasutaka Kaneko


Abstract : Patients with a diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia often visit shiatsu clinics, and they experience reduction in symptoms after a several shiatsu sessions in many cases. The lumbar disc hernia diagnosed by imaging findings does not always relate to the symptoms. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and serious lumbar disc hernia became mostly asymptomatic after three shiatsu sessions although the imaging showed little changes. Since muscle tightness and / or blood circulation disorder of the lower extremities may be neurologically causing the symptom, shiatsu treatment is worth trying for even a patient diagnosed with lumber disc hernia to ease the symptom.

Shiatsu Treatment for Facial Nerve Paralysis (Bell’s Palsy)

Hiroshi Ishihara, Tsutomu Nagai


Abstract : Facial nerve paralysis is a disease caused by various factors, and its definite treatment method is not established yet. It is also one of poor prognostic factors that the age of peak incidence of facial nerve paralysis is forties. This is a case report of a 93-year-old male patient treated with shiatsu and his symptoms was eased in three weeks although he had been diagnosed with facial nerve paralysis (Bell’s Palsy) requiring three months for recovery. The efficacy in terms of the improvement rate of the symptom and the patient safety were confirmed, and therefore shiatsu treatment potentially contributes to treat this disease.

Effect of Shiatsu on Dynamic Knee Joint Alignment Test

Ryo Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ishizuka


Abstract : According to some studies, many athletes have the impression that pregame shiatsu may cause undesirable muscle relaxation. We therefore studied the effects of shiatsu on muscle function by analyzing dynamic knee joint alignment. For this study, we defined the difference between the two extreme values of the dynamic knee joint alignment test as motion stability.Compared to the non-stimulus group, the stimulus group showed a significant difference in motion stability. This indicates that shiatsu produced effects not only on muscle function but also on the nervous system controlling muscle power output.This study showed just one aspect of the various potential effects that shiatsu possesses, including performance improvement and athletic rehabilitation, and will help to change athletes’ perspectives of shiatsu.

Prevention of Locomotive Syndrome – Trance Theoretical Model (TTM) for Physical Activity in Practice –

Kazuhiro Kurosawa


Abstract : Regular exercise is the most effective way to prevent locomotive syndrome. Here we discuss basic knowledge about locomotive syndrome and a psychological approach which encourages patients to exercise regularly.

Journal of Shiatsu Society of Japan Vol.02 – 2013

Effectiveness of shiatsu against concomitant edema with diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension: a case report

Nobuyuki Mitudome*


Abstract :The number of elder patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension has been demonstrating an upward trend especially in recent years. This case, a 81 year old female patient, was diagnosed with diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and she has been on medication since then. These diseases have been stabilized by medication. Meanwhile, edema of lower extremities was gradually getting prominent. Aiming at ease of the edema, she has been continuously treated by shiatsu since July, 2011. As a result, the treatment has been providing symptomatic relief. This is a case report indicating that continuous shiatsu treatment may contribute to ease and prevent edema.

Plantar and dorsal flexion strength changes caused by Shiatsu

Tomochika Etou*


Abstract :Effects of the lower extremity shiatsu on muscle strength of plantar and dorsal flexion were investigated using an isokinetic strength measuring equipment. Compared to a group without shiatsu treatment, muscle strength change of a group with shiatsu was decreased at the points of immediately after exercise and five minutes later when plantarflexing 180 degree / sec. This result indicates that shiatsu may have improved output controllability of muscles.

Shiatsu therapy for atopic dermatitis (the second report): a case report

Yasutaka Kaneko*


Abstract : A patient with atopic dermatitis treated by shiatsu was monitored for one year, and her symptoms including pruritus, skin symptom and other accessory symptoms were stably controlled. Additionally two other cases were monitored for half a year and their symptoms were improved, although their values of Visual Analog Scale fluctuated. Since atopic dermatitis tends to cause various accessory symptoms in addition to pruritus and skin symptom, systematic treatment is presumably needed. Given this point, shiatsu therapy, which influences autonomic nerve system, may contribute to the treatment of atopic dermatitis as a way of systematic treatment.

Shiatsu therapy for atopic dermatitis: a case report

Yuuichi Chiba*1, Yasutaka Kaneko*2


Abstract : There was a report demonstrating the effectiveness of shiatsu therapy to relieve pruritus and skin symptom caused by atopic dermatitis. However, if such shiatsu therapy relies on special skills and experiences of a therapist, the effectiveness of shiatsu therapy for symptoms of atopic dermatitis is disputable. Therefore, a research into the effects of shiatsu therapy provided by an inexperienced therapist for a patient with atopic dermatitis was conducted. As a result, pruritus and skin symptom were relieved. The result indicated that shiatsu therapy, which acts on autonomic nerves, has the potential to exert an effect on atopic dermatitis.

An approach to erythema nodosum through Földi method complex physical therapy and Shiatsu therapy: a case report

Yukiko Nakamori*


Abstract : A patient with inflammation, joint swelling and edema caused by erythema nodosum, which was triggered by osteoarthritis of lumbar spine, was treated with “Földi method complex physical therapy”, “Shiatsu therapy”, compression therapy and decongestive exercises. The course of treatment was evaluated by circumferences and volumes of four reference points of the left lower extremity. As a result, circumferences and volumes of the two points were decreased. Therefore, medical manual lymphdrainage and Shiatsu therapy combined with compression therapy and decongestive exercises may have a potential to ease edema and accessory symptoms.

Finger-Floor Distance (FFD) changes due to Shiatsu treatment of the posterior femoral region

Kyoichi Hoshino, Munetaka Hibi, Kyoko Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Kurosawa


Abstract : Standing forward flexion changes due to Shiatsu stimulation of various regions have been verified and reported. Building on the past results, we researched standing forward flexion changes due to shiatsu stimulation of the posterior femoral region. The research was conduced on 29 healthy subjects, and standing forward flexion was significantly improved by shiatsu stimulation of the right and left posterior femoral region for 3’ 30’’ compared to the non-stimulation group. This result indicated that shiatsu stimulation of the posterior femoral region eases tense hamstring muscles and improves flexibility.

Survey by questionnaire about volunteer Shiatsu at Tokyo Yumemai Marathon (The second report) : a survey report

Tomochika Etou, Tsutomu Nagai, Hiroyuki Ishizuka


Abstract : Following the survey report of the 12th Tokyo Yumemai Marathon, we conducted a survey in the form of a questionnaire at the Kagurazaka Station of the 13th Tokyo Yumemai Marathon using VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). About 97% of the respondents answered that the degree of fatigue or pain were reduced after the shiatsu treatment. Although there were some different conditions such as the weather and the number of questionnaires collected, the percentage was almost same as the last report. The number of cases with fatigue and / or pain in left leg was, however, lower than the last. It is necessary to discuss efficacy and effectiveness of shiatsu in sports fields by reviewing a format of the questionnaire and its implementation methods.

Shiatsu treatment for scapulohumeral periarthritis: a case report

Kazuto Kaneko


Abstract :Aiming at releasing tension of muscles consisting rotator cuff and periarticular muscles in order to alleviate the pain and improve the range of joint motion, Shiatsu treatment was provided for a patient of scapulohumeral periarthritis. After seven sessions of Shiatsu treatment, the range of joint motion was consequently improved. This case suggested the potential of Shiatsu treatment to improve flexibility and the decreased range of joint motion caused by scapulohumeral periarthritis.

Shiatsu therapy for hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis)

Yuuki Hasegawa

花粉症(季節性アレルギー鼻炎) に対する指圧療法:長谷川有基

Abstract : Building on the recent reports indicating that shiatsu therapy has the potential to ease symptoms of atopic dermatitis, a research was conducted to determine the effects of shiatsu therapy on hay fever, which is classified into type I allergy. Through observation of three patients regularly treated by shiatsu, it was found that ratings of Visual Analog Scale were generally lowered, and eye itchiness and nasal congestion were especially relieved after the treatments. Also, there was a case where a patient succeeded in reducing the dose of prescription medication with controlling symptoms. Regarding these three cases, there was a tendency that the more recent they developed hay fever and the milder symptoms they have, the more effective shiatsu therapy was. These results indicated that regular shiatsu therapy may relieve symptoms of hay fever.

Journal of Shiatsu Society of Japan Vol.01 – 2012

Shiatsu therapy for atopic dermatitis: a case report

Yasutaka Kaneko


Abstract : In terms of treatment for atopic dermatitis, symptomatic therapies are mainly provided for the patients. Aiming at relief of symptoms and quality-of-life improvement, Shiatsu therapy was practiced. As a result, improvements in Visual Analog Scale and changes in eczema lesion and accompanying symptoms were observed after seven sessions of Shiatsu therapy. Eczema lesion and pruritus are the most problematic symptoms of atopic dermatitits, and such symptoms tend to be reduced by maintaining general health. Effects of Shiatsu on autonomic nerve system and muscle hardness have also been reported. Therefore, it is suggested that Shiatsu therapy is potentially capable of relieving symptoms of atopic dermatitis.

Shiatsu treatment for mastitis: a case report

Masatoshi Miyashita

Abstract : From June 29 to July 1, 2011, two sessions of Shiatsu treatment were conducted for a patient of stagnation mastitis. Shiatsu was practiced on her papillae, areolae, and outer rims of papillae, and consequently the patency was acquired. This case suggested the effectiveness of Shiatsu treatment for stagnation mastitis.

Variation in respiratory quotient by Shiatsu on anterior cervical region

Tomochika Etou, Masasuke Kuwamori

Abstract :To study the effect of Shiatsu therapy on the metabolism, we conducted a trial about variation in respiratory quotient comparing Shiatsu stimulus group versus non-stimulus group using an analysis system of expired gas. The analysis of variance resulted that variation over time was significant in Shiatsu stimulus group. Meanwhile, significant variation was not observed in the control group. The multiple comparison of the experimental group also indicated that the respiratory quotient was significantly decreased at the points of 45 seconds and 60 seconds after Shiatsu, comparing at the point of zero second (before Shiatsu stimulus). As a result, it was observed that the respiratory quotient was significantly decreased by Shiatsu on the anterior cervical region.

Discussion about postural analysis and measurement of joint motion utilizing free software

Kazuhiro Kurosawa

Abstract : For the development of Shiatsu in medicine, accumulation of evidences is crucial. Assessing the clinical condition of a patient objectively and accurately as much as possible, keeping track of its progress, and recording it are important. Solely the patient’s satisfaction and the fact of a cure are incomplete. Among the needs for Shiatsu treatment, locomotory problems make up relatively large number of complaints. Maintaining poor posture adds extra stress and strain to joints and muscles, and it may result in pain or discomfort. Accurate analysis of the patient’s posture allows a therapist to presume his/her muscle balance – which muscles are stretched/shortened. Taking this opportunity, I would like to discuss postural analysis utilizing digital camera and GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program).

Shiatsu treatments and chief complaints at the evacuation center

Hironori Tsukiashi, Yukiko Nakamori, Nobuto Sugawara, Mitsuyo Takimoto

Abstract :After the Tohoku Earthquake, we supported evacuees with Shiatsu treatment at a primary evacuation center of Azuma Sports Park, Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture (the number of evacuees of the day; 633) for two days from May 11 to May 12, 2011. We conducted hearing survey of chief complaints from 181 evacuees and treated them with a twenty-minute session of Shiatsu therapy. Chief complaints of the 181 evacuees living there consisted of problems of shoulders; 78, lower back; 35, legs; 23, neck; 20, arms; 13, back; 6; and other problems including eyestrain, gastritis, and fatigue; 6. Contrary to our expectation that mainly their chief complaints would be about lower back and legs, the number of evacuees complaining about strains and stiffness of shoulders was actually more than double that of lower back. We also questioned them about the chief complaints after the Shiatsu treatments and confirmed that they were abated.

Recognition of Shiatsu in the field of beach football: a survey report

Hiroyuki Ishizuka

Abstract : Anma (Japanese traditional massage), massage, and Shiatsu are becoming widespread also in the field of sports these days. Such therapies are getting familiarized among not only top athletes but also general sports-loving people, and it indicates the growing demands in this field for Anma, massage, and Shiatsu. Through my experiences as practicing Shiatsu in the field of sports, I had become to wonder if few athletes recognized advantageous effects of Shiatsu such as pre-exercise conditioning and performance improvement. Therefore, we conducted a survey regarding the recognition about effects of pre-exercise Shiatsu over two years (in 2008 and 2009) taking opportunities of extracurricular volunteering activities of Japan Shiatsu College in the field of sports, specifically beach football, over the last four years. As a result, the recognition about effects of pre-exercise Shiatsu was low, and most of athletes had no experiences of Shiatsu before exercises. The results suggested that the wide range of effects from Anma, massage, and Shiatsu treatments were not well known in the field of sports, and it is necessary for licensed practitioners of Anma, massage, and Shiatsu to widen their appeal in this field and to spread the awareness of such effects. The more active they are, the more needs for Anma, massage, and Shiatsu are expected in the field of sports.

Shiatsu treatment for Osgood-Schlatter disease: a case report

Hironori Tsukiashi

Abstract :This is a case report regarding a patient of Osgood-Schlatter disease treated with Shiatsu therapy. By releasing tensed periarticular muscles of the hip and knee joints, Shiatsu treatment in this case resulted in pain relief.

Survey by questionnaire about volunteer Shiatsu at Tokyo Yumemai Marathon : a survey report

Tomochika Etou, Masatoshi Miyashita, Hiroyuki Ishizuka, Nobuyuki Mitsudome

Abstract : We conducted a survey in the form of a questionnaire inquiring degree of pain before and after Shiatsu treatment using VAS (Visual Analogue Scale), which was 100 mm (= 100 points) in length. The questionnaire was A4 size, double-sided printing, and answered at the Kagurazaka Station of 12th Tokyo Yumemai Marathon (at the point of 33.892 km). The respondents were also asked to mark up fatigued and/or painful areas on illustrations of the questionnaire. As a result, about the degree of fatigue or pain described in VAS, 133 answered “decreased”, three answered “increased”, and two answered “remain the same” out of the 138 respondents. The average VAS score of the cases “decreased” was 38 points and “increased” was 28 points. Regarding the fatigued and/or painful areas, the top answer was the posterior region of left lower leg, and the second was the posterior region of right lower leg.

Shiatsu treatment for scapulohumeral periarthritis: a case report

Kazuto Kaneko

Abstract :Aiming at releasing tension of muscles consisting rotator cuff and periarticular muscles in order to alleviate the pain and improve the range of joint motion, Shiatsu treatment was provided for a patient of scapulohumeral periarthritis. After seven sessions of Shiatsu treatment, the range of joint motion was consequently improved. This case suggested the potential of Shiatsu treatment to improve flexibility and the decreased range of joint motion caused by scapulohumeral periarthritis.

Approach to lower-extremity lymphedema with Shiatsu and Földi method complex physical therapy: a case report

Yukiko Nakamori

Abstract : A patient of lower-extremity lymphedema, caused by extensive hysterectomy for treatment of uterine cervical cancer, was treated with combined application of Shiatsu therapy and Földi method complex physical therapy. Assessment of changes in circumference and volume of both lower-extremities based on seven reference points indicated decreases in all values. The result suggested the potential of treatments combined medical manual lymphatic drainage and Shiatsu therapy to alleviate the symptoms of secondary lymphedema and its concomitant symptoms.


日本指圧専門学校 同窓会会長
指圧道師範 川原善次郎

消火器と云えば、胃腸があげられるが、指圧で胃腸をコントロール させるには、腹部指圧と背部指圧があります。基本指圧が一番ですが、基本指圧でも丁寧に隅々まで指が行き届かなければ効果は出せないものです。 それに胃腸のコントロールに欠かせないのは頚部指圧の前頚部指圧、横頚部指圧を丁寧にする事が大切ですが、あまり難しく考える事はありません。基本指圧がきちんと出来ているかです。 腹部指圧の基本指圧で、掌圧で時計周りに圧する時に脾臓の部分で指先はどう使っているかで治療が出来るか否かです。また、拇指圧の一点目が微妙です。一点目の少し左上が胆のうです。臍の周り四点目が十二指腸です。 掌圧で最初に回る四手目盲腸、六手目、七手目、九手目は、これは大体大腸です。

六手目は、大腸では上行結腸と横行結腸の曲がり目、七手目は、横行結腸と下行結腸の曲がり目、九手目は、S状結腸。 大腸周りの指圧は、臍の周りの硬い時は、指圧は強からず、癒くり指圧が速く緩む。

腹部の拘結には背部の指圧は欠かせない。背部の指圧は背部四点目から十点目で胸椎其番目から腰椎一番の小内臓神経、腰椎二番目から其番の下腸間膜動脈神経 に刺激を与える背部指圧は欠かせない。この間の指圧をしながら気になるコリを見つけたらこのコリを強からず持続を加えるのが、早い治療になる。 基本指圧をよく思い出してください。基本指圧は良く出来ています。後は指の使い方です。

El Shiatsu y su Difusión en el Extranjero

Escrito por Kiyoshi Ikenaga, Shiatsupractor


  • Definición de Shiatsu
  • Esencia del Shiatsu
  • Historia del Shiatsu (Los Comienzos - Origen del Shiatsu)
  • Historia del Shiatsu (Parte Media – El camino hacia el reconocimiento legal)
  • Historia del Shiatsu (Ultima Parte – Shiatsu Derivativo y otras derivaciones)
  • Difusión del Shiatsu – Problemas y Condiciones en el Extranjero
  • Homogeneización de Licencias en el Mundo del Shiatsu – “Shiatsupractor®”
  • El Shiatsu y el Shiatsu Derivativo
  • Curriculum Estándar de 2200-Horas para la Categoría de Shiatsupractor
  • Bibliografía y Referencias


Cuando practico Shiatsu en el extranjero, se vuelve extremadamente importante definir el Shiatsu correctamente. Japón es el lugar de origen del Shiatsu y la mayoría de la gente en Japón sabe lo que es el Shiatsu. Aunque la gente no comprende la definición exacta del Shiatsu, pueden asumir el significado general del Kanji (caracteres chinos actualizados al japonés). Sin embargo, aunque el Shiatsu se ha dado a conocer recientemente en países extranjeros, la palabra en sí no tiene significado en los caracteres del alfabeto Latino. Y por ello se necesita una explicación. Para traducir el significado del Shiatsu en Español, “SHI” es dedo y “OYAYUBI” es pulgar. “ATSU” es presión, así que traduciendo literalmente Shiatsu significa “presión con el dedo” o “presión con el pulgar”. La definición parece simple.Sin embargo, el problema no es la palabra. Para difundir el Shiatsu con precisión, terapia manual original japonesa, es muy importante dar instrucciones basándose en los terrenos legales de la Terapia del Shiatsu reconocidos por “La Ley de terapeutas especialistas en Shiatsu, Masaje y Anma, especialistas en Acupuntura y especialistas en Moxibustión”.

El Shiatsu fue reconocido por primera vez bajo la ley japonesa en 1955, y en el libro de texto “Teoría y Práctica del Shiatsu” publicado por el departamento médico del Ministerio de Bienestar (actual Ministerio de Salud, Trabajo y Bienestar) en Diciembre de 1957, donde el Shiatsu se define como sigue:

“La técnica del Shiatsu se refiere al uso de los dedos y la palma de las manos para aplicar presión en secciones determinadas en la superficie del cuerpo, con el propósito de corregir desequilibrios del cuerpo, y para mantener y promover la salud. También es un método de contribución para la sanación de enfermedades específicas.”

La traducción anterior sobre la definición del Shiatsu se puede encontrar en las páginas Web CSSBCón

Dicho esto, los siguientes tres puntos fueron fijados como la principal premisa de la terapia del Shiatsu:

  1. Utilizar las manos al descubierto. (Sin herramientas, codos, rodillas, pies, etc.)
  2. Presionar la superficie del cuerpo (no frotar, golpear ni tirar)
  3. Tener la intención de mantener y mejorar la salud o recuperación de una enfermedad.

Estos son los tres conceptos más importantes a la hora de explicar el Shiatsu fuera de nuestras fronteras.


La característica del Shiatsu es practicar utilizando sólo los dedos, palmas y especialmente los pulgares, aunque la esencia del Shiatsu es “Diagnóstico y Terapia combinados”.

“Diagnóstico y Terapia combinados” es la habilidad que debe tener el terapeuta especialista utilizando sus órganos sensoriales (palmas, dedos y pulgares) para detectar irregularidades, tales como rigidez de la superficie del cuerpo, y rápidamente corregir o sanar estos problemas. Para adquirir esta admirable habilidad lleva una experiencia considerable. La diferencia definida entre la terapia del Shiatsu y la medicina moderna y medicina de Kampo (también conocida como Medicina Tradicional China, tales como acupuntura y moxibustión) es precisamente “Diagnóstico y Terapia combinados”; el echo es que el Shiatsu no siempre requiere que se haga un diagnóstico previo antes de comenzar el tratamiento.

En la medicina moderna, el tratamiento sólo se puede decidir después de haber hecho un diagnóstico. En la MTC, también es necesario diagnosticar antes de tratar. En la Terapia de Shiatsu, los terapeutas especialistas promueven la prevención y recuperación de una enfermedad estimulando el sistema inmunológico y el poder natural de sanación que las personas ya tienen. Por tanto, incluso sin un diagnóstico o con la barrera del lenguaje, los terapeutas especialistas pueden, por citar a Toru Namikoshi Sensei, tratar pacientes con “los pulgares y un futón fino” en cualquier lugar. Tratando el cuerpo como un todo ayuda a restaurar las funciones físicas del sistema nervioso, sistema circulatorio, la estructura de los huesos, músculos y la secreción interna y estimula su habilidad natural para sanar enfermedades. Dicho esto, terapeutas hábiles pueden contribuir considerablemente en el tratamiento médico y de salud particular.


Los primeros acontecimientos del Shiatsu comenzaron con el TEATE, que traducido literalmente significa “manos encima” en Japonés. En el vocabulario de hoy también significa “tratamiento”. Desde tiempos remotos, los seres humanos sabían instintivamente que se puede suprimir el dolor poniendo una mano en la zona afectada. El registro más antiguo sobre el tratamiento de una dolencia por TEATE es alrededor de doscientos mil años en la era mítica. También hay registrado en un poema japonés antiguo, un incidente donde Sukunahikonakami, el padre de la medicina Japonesa, curaba dolencias con sus manos desnudas. Este tipo de leyendas no sólo se limita a Japón por supuesto, sino que han sido el resultado del desarrollo de terapias manuales por todo el mundo, tales como el masaje en Europa y el Anma en China (llamado Tsui-na en la China Contemporánea).

Después de los tiempos prehistóricos, la medicina Kampo, fue importada desde el continente, China a través de la península de Korea junto con la transmisión del Budismo. En 9…, Yasuyori Tanba escribió lo que es ahora el libro médico más antiguo titulado “Ishinboh”, que actualmente se encuentra en Japón, y la medicina Kampo pasó a ser el centro de la medicina Japonesa. La posición de la medicina Kampo se mantuvo hasta la Revolución de Meiji (1867). La medicina Kampo incluía la terapia manual “Anma” junto con sus prácticas predominantes: acupuntura, moxibustión y medicina China. En el periodo de Edo, los grandes especialistas en terapias manuales (terapeutas de Anma), tales como Ryouzan Goto y Shinsai Ota, aparecieron uno detrás del otro. En los últimos años del periodo Edo, Genpaku Sugita y Ryoutaku Maeno iniciaron la prosperidad de la medicina Occidental del Periodo Meiji al traducir el “Kaitaishinsho” (texto de anatomía procedente de los Países Bajos). Con la influencia de la medicina más moderna de los países occidentales, muchas terapias manuales tales como el masaje, quiropraxia, osteopatía y spongio fueron también importadas. Además de estas terapias foráneas, había más de trescientos tratamientos civiles; éstos eran tratamientos japoneses antiguos importados de China: Anma, Douin, Kampo, Jyujutsu, etc. y sus formas combinadas.

En 1912, con siete años, el fundador de la terapia Shiatsu, Tokujiro Namikoshi, se trasladó al pueblo de Rusutsu, Hokkaido de la prefectura de Kagawa, en la isla de Shikoku. En ese tiempo, el cuerpo de la madre de Tokujiro, Masa, estaba cubierto de dolor debido a la fatiga del viaje y al cambio extremo del entorno. En aquellos días era difícil encontrar médicos y medicinas. Tokujiro no podía soportar ver sufrir a su madre y probó curarla “frotando” y “dándole golpeteos”. Sin embargo, se dio cuenta que su condición mejoraba más cuando presionaba y liberaba la rigidez de su cuerpo con sus pulgares. Basándose en esta observación, desarrolló un método de aplicar presión que dependía de la temperatura y dureza del cuerpo de la madre. Como resultado, la madre se recuperó completamente. Su condición ahora se conoce como “reumatismo”; su recuperación fue el resultado del TEATE de un niño que quería curar a su madre desesperadamente. Basándose en esta experiencia, después de muchas pruebas y errores e investigaciones, el Ministerio de Salud de Japón definió la “Terapia Shiatsu”.

En 1925, se abrió la primera clínica de tratamiento Shiatsu en el mundo, en Muroran, Hokkaido. En 1934, Tokujiro Namikoshi publicó el artículo “La Terapia Shiatsu y Psicología”. En 1940, abrió el Colegio de Shiatsu Japonés. La palabra “Shiatsu” se usó por primera vez en los años 20 por Tenpeki Tamai y sus escritos de “Terapia Shiatsu” se publicaron en 1939.


Hacia finales de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, gran parte del estilo de vida, ideas comunes y valores japoneses dieron un giro de 180 grados, y la actitud hacia el tratamiento médico civil no era una excepción. La Escuela Japonesa de Shiatsu (ahora Colegio Japonés de Shiatsu) fue establecida en 1940 por Tokujiro Namikoshi. La escuela envió muchos terapeutas que fueron certificados por la “Ley de Juntas de la Policía Metropolitana” en 1930. En aquellos días, la mayoría de los tratamientos médico civiles (llamados cuasi-medicina), incluyendo Shiatsu, no tenían licencia basándose en un examen nacional estandarizado. Eran parte de un sistema de evaluación bajo la jurisdicción de la policía. En 1947, justo después de que finalizara la guerra, la “Ley Económica de Anma, Acupuntura, Moxibustión y Jyudo-Alimento” fue promulgada por el jefe de GHQ. Esto ahora se conoce como la “Ley de terapeutas de Anma, Masaje y Shiatsu, terapeutas de Acupuntura y terapeutas de Moxibustión”. Bajo esta ley y hasta 1955, se les dio una condena condicional al Shiatsu y a otros tratamientos medico civiles reconocidos por el sistema de evaluación.

En 1955, durante la 22ª Sesión de la Dieta, el gobierno hizo una enmienda parcial a la “Ley Económica de Anma, Acupuntura, Moxibustión y Jyudo-Alimento”. Un comité del Organismo de Asesores de Trabajo Social fijó una audiencia pública, convocando testigos de cada sector de la sociedad. En el proyecto de ley, se revisó la expresión “Anma” a “Anma (incluyendo Masaje y Shiatsu)”. La intención del proyecto de ley era prohibir los tratamientos medico civiles que no fueran Anma, Masaje y Shiatsu. Los siete temas principales que se discutirían en la audiencia pública eran los siguientes:

  1. Relaciones entre medicina y cuasi-medicina.
  2. Relaciones entre Anma y Shiatsu.
  3. Relaciones entre Shiatsu y medicina.
  4. Valores educativos y económicos para la cuasi-medicina.
  5. Interpretación del periodo de suspensión de ocho años introducido por la “Ley Económica de Anma, Acupuntura, Moxibustión y Jyudo-Alimento”.
  6. Cambiar o cerrar antes de 3 años cualquier práctica de cuasi-medicina, excepto prácticas de Shiatsu.
  7. Prohibición de la cuasi-medicina.

Esta audiencia pública sobre enmiendas fue extremadamente importante en la historia del Shiatsu porque el proyecto de ley se aprobó con la expresión de “Anma (incluyendo Masaje y Shiatsu)”. Esta fue la primera vez en la historia que la palabra “Shiatsu” apareció en las leyes. En 1957, dos años después de la audiencia, el Ministerio de Salud de Japón publicó el libro de texto que ofrece la definición del Shiatsu. Además, los maestros que presenciaron la audiencia pública publicaron muchos artículos acerca del Shiatsu, los cuales fueron ampliamente reconocidos por la sociedad. Fue en ese periodo cuando también el Colegio Japonés de Shiatsu pasó a ser una escuela autorizada por el Ministerio de Salud. A través de este proceso, se hizo otra enmienda en 1964, y el nombre de “Anma (incluyendo Masaje y Shiatsu”) pasó a expresarse como “Anma, Masaje y Shiatsu”. Ese fue el momento en que el Shiatsu obtuvo reconocimiento legal finalmente, como método original japonés de tratamiento médico.

Los testimonios de los testigos de la 22ª Sesión de la Dieta, en la Diputación de Consejeros de Trabajo Social en 1955, sentaron las bases para la “Ley de terapeutas de Anma, Masaje y Shiatsu, terapeutas de Acupuntura y terapeutas de Moxibustión” la cual separaba tanto Shiatsu como Masaje de “Anma”. Durante los siguientes nueve años, se hicieron muchas enmiendas en las leyes lo cual posicionó eventualmente el Shiatsu como una terapia manual independiente. Esa audiencia pública y el movimiento de nueve años que le siguieron fueron críticos para la consolidación, organización y reconocimiento legal del Shiatsu, y durante ese periodo se consolidó la mayor parte de lo que hoy conocemos como la Terapia Shiatsu.

A continuación ofrecemos una lista de los maestros que atendieron esta audiencia pública como testigos y defendieron su punto de vista:

  • Director de la Asociación de Doctores de Japón …… Kunisaku Shimuru
  • Profesor honorario de la Universidad Médica de Tokyo …… Haohisa Fujii
  • Profesor de la Primera Universidad Médica de Yokohama …… Kazumi Yarimotsu
  • Profesor de Formación de Instructores Especiales de la Universidad de Educación de Tokyo …… Katsusuke Serizawa
  • Presidente de la Asociación de Masaje, Moxibustión y Acupuntura de Japón …… Yoshikatsu Komori
  • Presidente de la Asociación de Terapeutas de Moxibustión y Acupuntura deJapón …… Hiroshi Hanada
  • Presidente de la Asociación de Masaje, Moxibustión y Acupuntura de Kyoto …… Mitsuo Kekino
  • Director de la Cooperación Nacional de Técnicas de Tratamiento …… Shigeru Matsumoto
  • Presidente de la Cooperación Nacional de Técnicas de Tratamiento …… Yoshizumi Utsunomaya
  • Presidente de la Asociación de Shiatsu de Japón …… Tokujiro Namikoshi
  • Profesor Médico de la Universidad de Tokyo …… Iyuji Miki

Immune Response in Animal Lymph Nodes

By Electroacupuncture Stimulation
Ben Hatai, M.D.*, Takahashi Hashimoto, Ph.D., Hiroshi Ishizuka, Ph.D., Michio Tany**, M.D. Tokyo, Japan

*Professor, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori Nishi, Ota-ku, Japan. ** Director, Tany Clinic, Vice President of MSA Research Group, 2-24-12 Minamiaoyama, Minato-ku, Japan.

Abstract: This paper investigates variations of white blood cell count, morphological changes of the lymph nodes and the influence on the immune mechanism in animals caused by acupuncture stimulation. Although marked increases of neutrophils or pseudoeosinophils were not observed, a decrease of lymphocytes and white blood cells was seen. Results showed that the antibody value in the experimental group of animals was much higher than in the control group. Pronounced histological changes were observed in the axillary lymph nodes in the areas in which acupuncture stimulation was performed. These changes consisted of marked enlargement of the lymph sinuses, notable hemorrhage, increase of mast cells, and a picture of degranulation. A rapid increase of plasma cells was particularly noticed after 48 hrs.

Since ACUPUNCTURE anesthesia was used successfully in tonsillectomy of the palatine tonsil in 1958 in China (*1), it has been applied with good results i various cases in Japan, Europe, and the U.S(*2-6). The pain-relieving effect of acupuncture has been considered to be induced from gate control (*7), inhibition of pain in the thalamus (*8) or the reticular formation of the midbrain (*9), or the production of an inhibitory nervous transmitter. Recently, C. Takeshi (*10) suspected that serotonin, released from serotonin-producing nerve cells in the midbrain by acupuncture stimulation, had an effect on the spinal cord through the descending fibers. He also presumed the existence of a factor in body fluid, by which pain-relieving effects in one parabiotic animal were transferred to another parabiotic animal. On the other hand, the therapeutic effectiveness of moxibustion has been considered to be due to histotoxins produced in the local region on which moxibustion was performed. K. Tatai (*11-13) reported that adrenocortical hormone secreted as a result of the stress of acupuncture stimulation had a therapeutic effect. A great numbe of experiments have been reported on the influence of acupuncture and moxibustion on the body, with special reference to the variation of white blood cell count (*14), the blood pressure (*15) and the effect on the movement of the stomach and intestines. In this paper, variations of white blood cell count, morphological changes of the lymph nodes and influence on immune mechanism by acupuncture stimulation are investigated in animals.

Material and Methods

The animals were rabbits weighing 2-3 kg., and Sprague-Dawley (SD) strain of rats of four weeks of age.

1) Electrostimulation.

The rabbits were placed in supine position on an operating table or in prone position on an operation table for canine aurosurgery. All experiments on rats were performed with the rats in supine position. Short stainless steel needles of 0.18 mm. diameter were used for electrostimulation, and acupuncture was performed on the Tsusanli (ST-36) and the Pang-gu (extra meridian point) of both rear legs. A low-frequency therapeutic apparatus for humans, the Tany Oriental Pulse Mix Type Ⅱ was also employed to carry out needle-to-needle stimulation. he negative pole was connected with the ST-36 point and the positive pole was connected with the Pang-gu point. Electrostimulation of 1.5 to 2.0 volt and 3 Hz. was given. The synchoroscope Jr. Type

Ⅱ was used for monitoring the output.

Acupuncture stimulation was given to the site which anatomically corresponded with the site in humans. The Tsusanli point of the leg in humans was equivalent to the point located one fingerwidth outside the tibial tuberosity in animals, and the Pang-gu point was equivalent to the central point between the third and the fourth metatarsus (Fig.1).


2) Blood Cell Count.

Blood was collected from the vein of the ear in the rabbits and the rete venosum dorsale pedis in the rats. Blood was sucked into a melangeur, and blood cells were counted in the counting chamber. The smear stained with May-Giemsa's solution was prepared for the hemogram.

3) Method of Immunization.

In the control groups of rabbits and rats, 10 mg. of bovine serum albumin dissolved in 1 ml. of a phosphate buffer solution was subcutaneously injected as an antigen into the sole of the legs. In the experimental groups, electroacupuncture stimulation was given to the Tsusanli and Pang-gu points of both legs for 30 minutes after above injection. The antigen was given primarily on the 1st day and secondly o the 9th day in both the control and experimental group of rabbits.

4) Measurement of Antibody Value.

Blood was collected every day from the auricular veins of the rabbits 1 to 28 days after the injection of the antigen. After separation of the serum, antigen value was measured according to the Ouchterlony method and was compared between the control and the experimental groups. In the rats, blood was collected directly from the heart 48 and 72 hours after the injection, and the comparison was made between the control and the experimental groups according to the above method.

5) Histological Examination.

In the control and experimental groups of the SD strain rats, the lymph nodes were removed from the axilla, the groin, the lumber, the mesenterium and the superficial cervical area directly, 24 and 72 hours after acupuncture stimulation. They were fixed in a 10 percent formalin and Helly's solution to prepare paraffin section, which were stained with the Pappenheim method and were histologically examined.



In the rabbits, contraction began to appear by electrostimulation at about 0.5 volt and increased with increasing voltage. After 15 to 20 minutes, the rabbits fell into anesthetic condition, in which no reaction was observed against pinching by hooked forceps on almost all skin areas of the body trunk and the rear legs, and against the prick of the skin with a needle. However, strong reaction of escape was found on the face, particularly on the lip and the tip or the nose. The same experiment was performed in the rats, and almost similar results were obtained on anesthesia.

1) Changes in White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count.

Changes in the count were examined before, during and after electroacupuncture stimulation. In the rabbits, there was a great individual difference in white blood cell count before electrostimulation. The count ranged from 5,000 to 15, 000, and many had counts between 5,000 and 8,000. In some rabbits, the count was higher after electrostimulation than before, but in some others the count increased or decreased according to the duration of electrostimulation (Fig.2). In general, the count dropped during anesthesia 30 minutes' duration and recovered after the suspension of electrostimulation.

As in the rabbits, white blood cell count in the rats showed great individual variation and ranged from 5,000 to 15,000. In many rats, the count was between 5,000 and 9,000.

Differing from the results of acupuncture stimulation in rabbits, no constant tendency was found in the rats. During stimulation, the count dropped in half of the rats and elevated in the other half.

Generally differential count of white blood cells in the rabbits repeated the decrease of lymphocytes and an increase of pseudoeosinophils during and after stimulation. No great variation was observed on basophils, eosinophils and monocytes, as their absolute number was small. However, some rabbits showed increased lymphocyte count and reduced pseudoeosinophil count during stimulation (Fig.4).

Similar results were obtained in the rats. Lymphocytes gradually dropped in number during and after stimulation, but neutrophils increased. Eosinophils, basophil or monocyte count did not greatly change, because their absolute numbers were low (Fig.5).

There was no significant variation in red blood cell count in both rabbits and rats.


2) Immune Experiment.


The antibody value was measured in the rabbits and was compared between the control and the experimental groups. The value began to elevate from the 8th day in both groups. In the control group, the value increased 8 times, reaching a peak on the 14th day, and then sank slightly until the 16th day. Finally, it decreased to 4 times and this value was constantly maintained. In the experimental group, the value increased 16 times to reach a peak on the 16th day, and slightly decreased to a value of 8 times. After the 18th day, this value was constantly kept, which was higher than that in the control group (Fig.6).

In the rats, the antibody value in the experimental group was twice as high than that in the control group at 48 hours, and four times higher at 72 hours.

3) Observation of the Lymph Nodes.


i) Gross Observation: In the experimental groups of both rabbits and rats, differed from the control groups, diffuse hemorrhage was grossly observed in the superficial cervical lymph nodes after 24 hours. After 48 hours, the hemorrhage was slightly reduced and had formed some spots, which had almost disappeared after 72 hours.


ii) Hostological Observation: Hostological pictures of the superficial cervical lymph nodes in the experimental group of the rats revealed extended lymph sinuses containing a great many red blood cells after 24 hours (Photogr.1), and an increase of plasma cells in the medullary cord and of mast cells (Photogr.2). After 48 hours, almost all red blood cells had disappeared, which macrophages had increased, showing phagocytic figures of the red blood cells. Plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils further increased in number. Although phagocytic figures of the red blood cells were rarely observed after 72 hours, plasma cells had further increased (photogr.3).


A great number of cases of acupuncture anesthesia in humans have been reported in China(*16),  Japan (*17/18)

and other countries. Basic studies on animal experiments using dogs(*19), cats(*20), rabbits(*21/22) and guinea pigs have also been published. The purpose of above reports was to clarify the mechanism of the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture anesthesia. However, our reports are intended to find the principles of the therapeutic effectiveness of acupuncture in diseases. In order to maintain a constant stimulation level, electroacupuncture stimulation was employed instead of acupuncture hand stimulation.

According to the experiment on dogs performed by K. Kitazawa(*19) , the point which anatomically corresponded with the point in humans was selected for acupuncture in animals. Although Kitazawa selected theChuchih and the throat point of the front legs and the Tsusanli and Pang-gu of the rear legs, we selected only two points on the rear legs to simplify the experiment. The negative pole was placed on the point Tsusanli of the legs in the proximal area, and the positive pole was placed on the distal Pang-gu point, because the negative pole usually had a stronger effect on the body and the peripheral areas were more sensitive.

Several preliminary experiments showed that electroacupuncture stimulation of 1.5 to 2.0 volt and 3 Hz. minimum was necessary to produce the pain-relieving effect in animals. This condition was similar to that of electroacupuncture in the treatment of humans.

1) Variation of White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count.

In the literature, white blood cell count ranged from 3,100 to 9,200 with an average of 6,400 in the New Zealand white rabbit(*23), and was 8,500 in the domestic rabbit. The average count in the Norway rat was 6,000 with a range of 4,500 to 11,000. In our experiment, the count ranged from 5,000 to 8,000 in rabbits, and from 5,000 to 9,000 in rats.

R. Imura(*24) observed that moxibustion increased white blood cell counts in rats, and T. Tamura(*25) found an increase of about 30 percent in humans. However, no consistency was observed in our experiment on acupuncture stimulation, and the count increased or decreased in each case. In the rabbits, the count tended to reduce during stimulation. On the other hand, differential count of white blood cells in rabbits and rats showed an increase of neutrocytes or pseudoeosinophils, and a decrease of lymphocytes. Imura(*24) found a decrease of lymphocytes and eosinophils by acupuncture stimulation. T. Tamura found an increase of neutrophils and a decrease of lymphocytes(*14). He reported that these variations were caused by increased amino acid, particularly glutamic acid(*25/26).

In our experiments, however, marked increase of neutrophils or pseudoeosinophils was not observed, but we attach importance to a decrease of lymphocytes and white blood cells. Investigations of the causes and the mechanism of the variation of lymphocytes have not been completed and further work is required.

2) Relation to immune mechanism.

B. Terada et al.(*27) observed the inhibitory effect of acupuncture stimulation on the Arthus phenomenon in rabbits. They reported that marked local reddening was observed on the 7th day after the injection of equine serum as antigen in the control group, but that only slight reddening was first found on the 10th day in the experimental group of rabbits, on which acupuncture was performed. N. Igarashi(*28) found that the antibody value in the rabbits on which moxibustion was performed elevated earlier than that in the control group. Our experiments on electroacupuncture stimulation of rabbits and rats for 4 weeks revealed that the antibody value in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control group. Dramatic histological changes were observed in the axillary lymph nodes in the areas in which acupuncture stimulation was performed. These changes consisted of marked enlargement of the lymph sinuses, notable hemorrhage, increase of mast cells, and a picture of degranulation. Rapid increase of plasma cells was particularly noticed after 48 hours. These changes seemed to be related to the elevation of immune antibody.

B. Hatai et al. (*29/30) injected bovine serum albumin as antigen into the sole of the feet of rats maintained under aseptic or general conditions. In the rats kept in aseptic condition, hemorrhage from a great many lymph nodes and release of histamine without accompanying degranulation of mast cells was observed. The hemorrhage was caused by the dilation of the capillary blood vessels and the invasion of the blood corpuscles into the sinuses. This process was assumed to be due to the effect of histamine. Although special rats maintained under aseptic conditions were used in the above experiment, we used rats raised under general conditions in our experiment on acupuncture stimulation. Therefore, there was a difference in quality. Hemorrhage was, however, observed in both experiments, which was considered to be induced from the increase of mast cells, the degranulation and acceleration of the transformation from lymphocytes to antibody productive cells. Postoperative infection need not be taken into consideration in acupuncture anesthesia, because these immune mechanisms may be present.


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  7. Melzack, R., et al.: Pain mechanism: A New Therapy. Science, 150:971, 1965.
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  11. Tatai, K., et al.: Experimental Observation on the Effect of Moxa Burn - a medical treatment of oriental medicine - on the Adrenal Cortex of Mice. Bull. Inst. Publ. Health, 2(3): 11, 1952.
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  13. Tatai, K., et al.: The Effect of Acupuncture Therapy to the Site of Nephro-Stimulation on the Adrenal Cortical System in Healthy of Uropepsin and Urinary 17-hydroxy-Corti-coids. J. of J.S.O.M., 8(1): 1-5, 1961. (In Japanese).
  14. Tamura, T.: Pharmacological Studies on the Mechanisms of Acupuncture. IV. Influence Upon the Blood Picture of the Rabbit. Med. & Biology. 3(2): 92-96, 1954.
  15. Watabe, M.: Effect of Acupuncture on Blood Pressure. Gifu Ika Daigaku Kiyo (Acta Scholae Medicinalis in Gifu), 1(4): 339, 1934. (In Japanese).
  16. Department of Anesthesiology, Hsuan Wu Hospital, Peking: Acupuncture Anesthesia in neurosurgery, Chin. Med. J., 53(2): 15, 1973.
  17. Kakizaki, K., et al: Caesarean Section by Acupuncture Anesthesia. Am. J. Acupuncture. 1(3): 108-111, 1973.
  18. Tany, M., et al.: Acupuncture Analgesia and Its Application in Dental Practice. Am. J. Acupuncture, 2(3): 287-295, 1974.
  19. Kitazawa, K., et al.: Studies on Electroacupuncture Analgesia in the Dog. I. Confirmation of the Effect. Jap. J. Veterinary Anesth., 6: 7-14, 1975.
  20. Aikawa, T.: Electrophysiological Consideration on the mechanism of Acupuncture Anesthesia - With Special Reference to the Effect of Acupuncture Stimulation on the Activity of Nonspecific Nuclear Neuron in the Thalamus. Clinic and Basis of Acupuncture Anesthesia, p. 175-189, Kokuseido, Tokyo, 1975. (In Japanese).
  21. Medoki, T., et al.: Basic Investigation on so-called Acupuncture Anesthesia (The First Report - Summary). J. J. Anesth., 22(10): 1055, 1973. (In Japanese).
  22. Acupuncture Anesthesia Research Group, Human Medical College, Changsha: The Relation Between Acupuncture Analgesia and Neurotransmitters in Rabbit Brain. Chin. Med. J., 53(8): 105, 1973.
  23. Hawkey, C. M.: Comparative Mammalian Hematology. Heinemann, London, 1975.
  24. Imura, S., et al.: Effect of Moxibustion on the Adrenal Cortex (Summary). Nippon Naibunpitsugakkai Zasshi (Folia Endocrinologica Japonica, 31(2): 106, 1951. (In Japanese).
  25. Tamura, T.: Pharmacological Studies on the Mechanisms of Acupuncture. II. Amino Acids in Blood of Acupunctured Animals. Medicine & Biology, 29(3): 91-95, 1953.
  26. Tamura, T.: Pharmacological Studies on the Mechanism of Acupuncture. V. Influence of Amino Acids Upon Blood Picture of the Rabbit. Medicine & Biology. 30(4): 150-153, 1954.
  27. Terada, B., et al.: Studies on Acupuncture (The second report - Summary). Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi (Folia Pharmacologica Japonica). 48: 178-179, 1952. (In Japanese).
  28. Igarashi, H., et al.: The Effect of Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Immunological Response. I. Antibody Formation in the Rabbits and Mice Treated with Moxa Cautery. J. of J.S.O.M., 26(2): 117-121, 1975.
  29. Hatai, B., et al.: Relationship Between Mast Cells and Immunological Response. Acta Anat. Nippon. 49(1): 19-20, 1974.
  30. Hatai, B., et al.: The Role of Mast Cells Upon the Hemorrhage in Lymph Sinus of Immunized Germ-Free Rats. 10th International Congress of Anatomists, Tokyo, p. 379 (abstract), 1975.

The Popularization and Dissemination of True Shiatsu

Kiyoshi Ikenaga, Shiatsumaster, SPR

The original form of Shiatsu arose out of "Teate".  Shiatsu, which is a unique hands-on therapy in Japan, was developed by the founder, Tokujiro Namikoshi sensei, almost a century ago. Today, the Japanese word “Shiatsu” has become familiar in English speaking countries as well as in countries throughout the world where different languages are spoken.  The original meaning of, and a direct translation of, "Teate" is "hands-on". Nowadays it is understood to mean "Treatment".  This helps us understand the fact that from ancient times in Japan, people, in their everyday lives have found that pain and other unpleasant symptoms can be relieved by placing their hands on the affected area.

Shiatsu Therapy has two distinct effects on the body. Firstly, applying pressure to the shiatsu points with one's fingers and palms, has a stimulating or adjusting effect on the body structures such as the integumentary system (skin and soft tissues), the muscular, nervous, skeletal, circulatory, endocrine, digestive systems and so on. It enhances the body's "natural healing ability" (immune system) which people already possesses, and prevents and treats illnesses. Secondly, we have the "Teate" effect on the affected body part upon which the hands are placed.

Presently we know that small amounts of  "chi", or energies such as a "negative ions" and "magnetism" are radiated from the skin of human beings.  This has been proven scientifically.  These energies, or "chi", are especially concentrated in the palms of experienced Shiatsu practitioners. We know the human body is controlled through electrical impulses generated by the brain and nervous system.  This "chi", radiating from an experienced practitioner's palms, works on the autonomic nerves to help normalize body functions and enhance the immune system. Therefore, Shiatsu, which does not require any equipment and has no side effects, is very effective in maintaining and improving health.

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan acknowledged shiatsu in Japanese law in the 1950's. As a result, it is accepted as one of the most effective preventative alternative medicines in Japan. Today, upon completion of a program of about 2200 hours at a school authorized by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, practitioners are able to obtain a license to practice Shiatsu after writing a government examination, just as doctors and nurses do.

Unfortunately in Canada, Shiatsu is not regulated by any of the provincial Ministries of Health. However, several years ago, Traditional Chinese Medicine, such as acupuncture, came under regulation by the Ministry of Health in BC. The Canadian Shiatsu Society of BC (CSSBC) is taking the lead in BC and has been promoting the regulation of a high educational standard for Shiatsu, similar to the one in Japan. The CSSBC's 2200-hour educational standard for Shiatsupractors is already recognized as an index for issuance of Business Licenses at the Municipal level, for instance, the City of Vancouver.

As you are well aware, the 2010 Winter Olympics will be held here in Vancouver.  Shiatsu for health maintenance was given a positive reception by the athletes and staff of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Nagano, as well as at the Summer Olympics in Torino this year.  Shiatsu made a positive contribution to both events. The Canadian College of Shiatsu Therapy expects to gain a foothold in the growing involvement of organizations with the 2010 Winter Olympics.  In cooperation with the Canadian Shiatsu Society of BC we hope to popularize the true Shiatsu throughout Canada, North America, and the world. We welcome everyone who is would like to join us in this activity.

“Shin-Ryo”performed by a Shiatsupractor

Written by Kiyoshi Ikenaga, Shiatsupractor®, Translated by Noriko Nishie Edited by Judy Thompson

The founder of Shiatsu Therapy, Tokujiro Namikoshi Sensei (1905 - 2000) stated that the essence of Shiatsu Therapy is “Diagnosis and Therapy Combined”.  Literally, this means “Teate” as well as “Shin-Ryo”  in Shiatsu Therapy.

The essence is the most important point to pass down to future generations in Japan .  It is also important to distinguish the original Shiatsu when introducing it around the world to newcomers to Shiatsu Therapy.

In the “Theory and Practice of Shiatsu”, published in 1957, the definition of shiatsu states “Shiatsu technique refers to the use of fingers and the palm of one’s hands to apply pressure to particular sections on the surface of the body for the purpose of correcting the imbalances of the body and for maintaining and promoting health.  It is also a method contributing to the healing of specific illnesses. It is clearly stated that one’s fingers, mainly thumbs, and palms are used to apply pressure (no rubbing or stroking) with no use of elbows, feet and legs.  (no “bony” parts)

The book also states that Shiatsu Therapy does not require the use of any devices such as   needles used in acupuncture.  In each specific region on the surface of the body there are definite Shiatsu pressure points (tsubo) which are different from Chinese “Meridian points” used in acupuncture and moxibustion.

The Shiatsu pressure points are determined by irregularities, abnormalities or imbalances of the body such as referred pain in the anatomical and physiological perspective.  Consequently, in order to understand the essence of Shiatsu Therapy, there are two principle concepts.  First of all, a treatment is performed using only the thumbs, fingers and palms.  Secondly, one should understand Tsubo theory, or the pathological reflex points.  Only with a full understanding of these two principle concepts can one bring “Shin-Ryo’s” capabilities into full play.  To apply pressure to the correct Shiatsu points with one’s fingers and palms is called “Kihon-Shiatsu”.

In the final analysis, the essence of Shiatsu means “Kihon-Shiatsu”.  It leads us to a conclusion that “Kihon” means “the essence”,  as well.  This concept constantly reminds Shiatsu practitioners of the importance of practicing the basics over and over during the time spent in shiatsu school.

Now, what is “Shin-Ryo” in Shiatsu Therapy?  In Western medicine as well as Chinese medicine, the “treatment” is done following the “diagnosis”.  In other words, the diagnosis and the treatment are separate actions.  But “Shin-Ryo” is the combining of diagnosis and treatment.  In shiatsu Therapy, we can say that the treatment itself, encompassing the two, is “diagnosis and therapy combined”.

This means it is possible to do a shiatsu treatment without a preliminary diagnosis and it is most unlikely that there is no cure for an unknown illness unless there are obvious contraindications to treatment.  Shiatsu therapy can treat any illness including sicknesses or symptoms of unknown origin.  To   apply “Kihon-Shiatsu” correctly leads to proper “Shin-Rryo”.  It should result in improvement of symptoms since the immune system will be improved.  Incidentally, to diagnose with the hands is called “shokushin”  in Western medicine and “setsu-shin” in Chinese medicine.  These are different from the “Shin-Ryo” of Shiatsu Therapy because these are actions resulting only in a diagnosis and are based on their individual theories.

To stimulate “Meridian points” in Chinese medicine using thumbs and elbows instead of a  needle or moxacautery is called acupressure in North America.  The concept of “Diagnosis and Therapy combined” does not exist within the     theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine upon which acupressure is based.

Acquiring the skills implied by the slogan, “Diagnosis and Therapy combined”, namely “Shin-Ryo”, in Shiatsu Therapy, is the ultimate goal which is accomplished by an extensive educational      foundation and considerable hands-on experience with a large number of patients.

Only Shiatsupractors® acquire their distinguished skills through this unique combination of education and experience.

The Benefits of Shiatsu

by Jule Webb

My introduction to Shiatsu occurred early in 1996 when I was attending a home show in Toronto. At the point of leaving the home show I noticed a group of soon-to-graduate Shiatsu students giving "sample" treatments. For most of my adult life I had been having chiropractic treatments to treat migraines and backache with limited relief. I had previously read articles about Shiatsu therapy, some positive and some negative, the negative explaining how some practitioners used elbows, knees and sometimes full body weight to exert pressure. The negatives ones influenced me against seeking this type of treatment. I later found out that Namikoshi's Shiatsu method uses only thumbs, fingers and palms. But at that time, feeling extremely fatigued and with lower back aching from all the standing I decided to take advantage of the students' offer. The session lasted about 20 minutes, at the end of which time I felt such rejuvenation it was difficult to believe the extent of relief. My back was no longer aching, fatigue had vanished and I was left with a pleasant feeling of relaxed tiredness and a lightness of body as though it had, to a certain extent, been released from the pull of gravity.

This experience led me to seek out a permanent therapist whom I found in Kensen Saito of the Shiatsu Academy of Tokyo. I have been having regular therapy since then and the benefits have proven to be numerous: fewer and less severe headaches; relief of backaches and tension in the neck and shoulder area; lowering of high blood pressure; less insomnia; ability to breathe more deeply; fewer episodes of short term memory loss that come with aging, and a corresponding increase of powers of concentration.

My husband was in an automobile accident a few months after I began therapy. As a result of this collision his lungs, already weakened from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suffered severe bruising. He had never been in favor of alternate therapies but his suffering was such that he agreed to Kensen administering Shiatsu therapy. After only one treatment he said the relief he felt was nothing short of miraculous. Unknown to us he was also in an advanced stage of prostate cancer, diagnosed six months later during a general medical examination. He continued having regular Shiatsu therapy until the time of his death in 1999 and it gave him enormous help in coping with all of the discomforts of two major illnesses. He looked forward to the days when he would have Shiatsu therapy and was always able to fall into a deep, restful sleep following the treatments.

I believe if Shiatsu were at least partly subsidized by government the overall benefit to the health of people in treating existing and preventing future problems would be considerable, not to mention the resulting savings in medical costs.

The Effectiveness of the Hand

Kiyoshi Ikenaga, Shiatsupractor

In the correct form of Shiatsu Therapy, one's hands and fingers are utilized. This is clearly stated as the definition of Shiatsu in "Theory and Practice of Shiatsu" published by the Ministry of Health in December 1957. Therefore, any method that applies force by the use of elbows, knees or feet cannot technically be called Shiatsu.

For your reference, below is a definition quoted from the Japan's Ministry of Health:

"Shiatsu technique refers to the use of fingers and the palm of one's hands to apply pressure to particular sections on the surface of the body for the purpose of correcting the imbalances of the body, and for maintaining and promoting health, and it is also a method contributing to the healing of specific illnesses."

Then, why is it so important to only use hands and fingers?

"Diagnosis and Therapy Combined = Essence of Shiatsu" describes how hands and fingers are indeed excellent sensory instruments that can recognize and treat 'trouble spots' in the body. Yet there is also a mystery hidden in the mechanism of the hand itself.

In Japan today, people still use the word for 'treatment', 'te-a-te', which literally means "hands-on". This means that by laying hands on the body, we can cure illnesses. Historically, this refers to the hands-on technique of healing, and in a broader sense, this can be traced back to the origins of "Shiatsu".

In fact, Hands-on healing methods are not exclusive to Japan; as suggested in historical documents in many parts of the world. Hands-on Therapy have been an integral part of peoples' lives as an effective treatment method. In Japan, up until TCM was imported around the period when Buddhism was introduced, Hands-on Therapy would have most likely been the main medical treatment. However, in the year 984, in what is considered as Japan's oldest existing medical document called "Ishinbo", compiled and edited by Yasuyori Tamba, in this document, he introduced the Chinese system of Meridian Line and Meridian Point along with Traditional Chinese Medicine. Also, until so-called Western Medicine was imported during the Meiji Restoration Period, methods introduced from China such as TCM, acupuncture, and moxibation took over center stage in Japan's medical practice for approximately 1000years.

However, during the Meiji Era, the simplest and most effective form of Hands-on Therapy was practiced under the guise of acupuncture and Chinese Medicine by historically renowned doctors such as Ryozan Goto and Fuzai Ohta. Needless to say, until Tokujiro Namikoshi Sensei developed Shiatsu, the only form of Hands-on Therapy used was not Shiatsu, but Anma Acupressure technique based on the theory of the Chinese Meridian Line, Meridian Point system.

Today, Anma Acupressure derived from China, western forms of massage, and uniquely Japanese Shiatsu are each accredited byJapan's Ministry of Health as distinct methods of Hands-on Therapy.

During the initial stage of policy restructuring, Shiatsu, along with massage, was categorized as a branch of Anma Acupressure for some period of time. For that reason, still today, some people tend to make such assumptions. However, based on its history and theory, Shiatsu differs completely from Anma Acupressure. In fact, Shiatsu can be categorized in the spectrum of treatment methods somewhere between massage and chiropractic.

Therefore, while both techniques effectively use the hand, Shiatsu does not rely on the TCM theories of Meridian Lines or Chi Gong in the same way that Anma Acupressure does.

The effectiveness of the hand in Shiatsu therapy is extremely connected with blood circulation. Medical Doctor, Fumimasa Yanagisawa clearly explains the relationship between Shiatsu Therapy and blood circulation.

There are numerous negative ions in the palm of a person's hand, which react with the positive ions within the bloodstream, which in turn help to improve the circulation of the blood. In other words, while calcium is the main component of the positive ions in the bloodstream, when the palm of the hand adheres closely with the surface of the skin, this increases the calcium component in the bloodstream. When the percentage of calcium in the blood increases, Potassium, interfering with blood circulation, in turn, decreases. This brings a fresh new blood supply to the whole body and acts to promote the natural healing powers innate in the human body, helping to prevent and heal illnesses. Moreover, with Shiatsu, the pressure penetrates to deeper regions compared to massages which may merely rub the surface of the body with oils etc., thereby bringing forth greater effectiveness.

The treatment of my brain Infarction by Shiatsu as told.

Written by Sakae Io,
Translated by Hikari Ikenaga,

I became paralyzed on the right side with hemiplesia because of a brain infarction and was admitted to the hospital where I stayed for fifty days to recover. The doctor told me, “the problem is inadequate blood flow to the left forehead”. First, I had intravenous drips for one week. For the next two weeks, I. took medicine. Still there were no signs of recovery. I worried about my condition. At that time, I had a vision of Tokujiro Namikoshi sensei who came up said to me, "Mr. Io, your left hand is free." I realized then that I should do self shiatsu immediately. However, I could use only my left hand. I tried using my fingers in many ways to do self shiatsu from the cervical to the head. As the doctor had indicated, I tried especially to improve the blood flow to the left side of the head. As a child, when I had a headache, my mother used to press my head (from the top to the side). After that I slept very well. Anyway, I did shiatsu for two weeks, and then, what a surprise I had! My fingers began to move, next my toes, and two or three days later, the elbow and knee could flex! I was very happy. It was like dream come true. I was very thankful for shiatsu. After three weeks in bed, I could walk with crutches. After four weeks, I could climb the stairs. My doctor was very surprised that I recovered so quickly. I said to him "that is because I did rehabilitation, but also, I did my best with self shiatsu". It seemed as if the doctor didn’t believe my explanation. After six weeks, my condition was very good and I didn’t need crutches to walk. Another thing, there was a forty two year old man next in the bed next to mine. He stayed there for three months and walked somehow with an artificial limb and crutch. I sympathized with him and asked if I could try shiatsu without consulting the doctor. I did thirty minutes of shiatsu followed by a ten minute break, repeated for a total of three hours. After that, he could stretch the knee joint. He was very happy and thereafter, he did self shiatsu and stretched the knee that night and the next morning. Then he practiced walking with only crutches. (without the artificial limb).  I said to him "please be careful walking because, if you slip, you might get a fracture." The doctor told him to wear the artificial limb when walking. However, he forgot our promise of confidentiality and told the doctor, "Yesterday, Mr. Io gave me shiatsu and then my leg could move!" At last the doctor believed in the effectiveness of shiatsu. He also asked me to teach thru Shiatsu to the rehabilitation doctors.

How wonderful shiatsu is!!

Shiastu teratment for Asthma

Toru Namikoshi, Translated by Hikari Ikenaga, Shiatsupractor & Judy Thompson, Shiatsupractor

It is best to do shiatsu for the asthma suffer when they are calm and not experiencing an acute attack. When the person is calm, shiatsu will improve their condition and help prevent asthma attacks.

Patient in Ouga position

Start from the left anterior Stenocleidmastoid to relieve the tension in this area as well as the Vegas Nerve. With the patient lying on their right side in Ouga position and the head resting on a pillow, place your le\ft hand on the forehead. Hold the posterior cervical spine with the thumb on the patient’s left side and the four fingers on the right side. Gently pull the head (pushing against the base of the skull), to stretch the neck for five to eight seconds. This will relieve the narrowing of the bronchial tubes as well as spasms. Next, perform Shiatsu on the lateral cervical, medulla oblongata, posterior cervical-as well as the entire neck region, as well as in the basic treatment. Then Seiza (Kneeling) at the top of the patients head, with the left thumb perform Shiatsu on the anterior, lateral and posterior cervical areas, as well as on the Supraspinatus and muscles Infraspinatus. Next, from behind the patient, place one hand on the left scapula with the other on top (hand-on-hand). Using the two hands and cupping (slight suction) motion make counter clock wise circles ten times, then make clock wise circles ten time. Then repeat the treatment from the beginning on the right side.

Patient in Fukuga position

Treat both sides, Suprascapular, and Infrascapular regions. Place both hands on either side of the spine with the thumbs touching (hands made a “W”) and the heel of the hand at the level of the diaphragm. With cupping action (Kyuin-Appo), push up and down (similar to the adjustment for back position in the basic treatment) ten times. Then spread the fingers open and repeat the up and down motions ten times. Then open a space between the thumbs (move the hands slightly to the lateral) and repeat the up and down motion again ten times. Repeat this up and down pattern (using the three hand positions) several times.

Patient in Gyoga position

Kneel at the head (Seiza), hold both shoulders with the four fingers of each hand on the deltoid muscle and the thumbs in the Delto-Pectral region. Press 5 or 6 points in the Delto-Pectral groove. Then, with the thumbs, treat the pectoral region (intercostals muscles) and the sternum. Treat this area with palm pressure as well. Next, do the basic Shiatsu treatment for the abdomen. Next, treat the area of the abdomen just under the ribs, 5 or 6 points on each side.

Patient in Seiza position (Kneeling position)

First, treat the whole neck (anterior, lateral, posterior, cervical), the supra scapular and Infrascapular areas. Have the patient clasp her/his hands behind their back, holding them at the sacrum. Stand behind the patient and place the hands around the shoulders. Pull the shoulders back and hold for ten seconds. Do this several times to open up the chest area.

Why Shiatsu is effective for Cerebral palsy

Written by Toshifumi Hirashima,
Translated by Chiharu Sato, Edited by Samantha Orr Levrat,

This is not unconditional, but Shiatsu therapy is very effective in treating the variety of disorders faced by a child suffering from Cerebral Palsy. For instance, it is effective in relieving the excessive muscle tension which is a particular symptom of a child suffering from Cerebral Palsy. Most of the children suffering these symptoms are not hypersensitive, but under pressure from this excessive muscular tension. It is hard for a healthy person to imagine the difficulties faced by a child suffering from this disorder. Among the difficulties faced is a feeling of helplessness, due to the fact that they cannot move. For a healthy person, reading a book in a park is an enjoyable pastime, but for a sufferer of Cerebral Palsy, this simple action is made impossible due to the fact that it feels as though they have casts on their arms and legs. If the patient’s condition includes a speech impediment, it makes the aforementioned condition even more difficult because it feels as though they have cotton in their mouth and are wearing a mask. These feelings are some of the contributing factors that lead to excess muscular tension in a patient suffering cerebral palsy. Shiatsu treatment quickly affects the nerves to make you mentally and physically relax. One of the principles of Shiatsu treatment is not to create any tension or pain. If we do not abide this principle, not only it is ineffective, but also can be dangerous. The moment when the body receives pressure, the body unconsciously reacts defensively. Moreover if the pressure is unsuitable, the body will exhibit a stronger defensive reaction. “No pain, no gain” is not a treatment. This is not a test of wills whether the Shiatsu practitioner’s thumb wins or not.

Diagnoses and Therapy Combined - Shiatsu Spirit.

We call the spirit of Shiatsu treatment “Diagnose and treat immediately” This means we do not separate the diagnosis from treatment, but we diagnose from each pressure point and treat at the same time. From the moment we apply pressure, we are able to pick up the body’s reaction and tension levels, and based on these findings, we are able to skillfully and correctly apply the correct technique. When the correct technique is applied, we reduce the defensive reaction and are able to manipulate the muscle to a tensionless state. We call this technique “tension unluckier” During treatment, Shiatsu practitioners will continuously assess the condition and reaction of the patient’s body, and modify treatment based upon these findings. If we unlock the defensive nature of muscle tissue, we can press further into the abdominal region as you can see in the picture, and we can get a smile from the patients. Truly, this is the advanced Shiatsu treatment technology at work. The ultimate technique of Shiatsu treatment is to release the unease and fear felt by the patient toward the Shiatsu practitioner, as when this apprehension is overcome, the patient’s muscle tissue relaxes to an almost unconscious level of relaxation. Shiatsu’s ultimate expression is the very dramatic result, achieve by the use of this very technique. To tell you the truth, it is meaningless to talk about Shiatsu treatment without understanding or acquiring this skill.

All mothers must be witch for their Children, all mothers have magic hands.

You need a driver’s license to drive a car. Once you get a license, you can gain experience by driving public road afterwards, but just as the race car driver cannot improve his skills on a public road, a Shiatsu practitioner can not learn his skill from anyone but a professional Shiatsu master. In the same way as race car driver, you need to understand the methods of treatment and also you require special training from a certified Shiatsu master. We guide a method of the Shiatsu treatment to mothers. Do not hesitate to learn because it is very advanced skill even for the professional. Mother’s hands are magic hands.

Children never refuse their mother.

Even for an expert in Shiatsu treatment, it is difficult to give a treatment to a new baby. Everyone feels unease and fear toward strangers. Once you understand the purpose of treatment, it will lessen the feeling, but it is hard for a baby to understand it. No one but their mother can easily release the baby’s mental defense.

Mother’s powers of observation are the Best.

Shiatsu practitioners observe the reaction of the muscle with their finger tips and adjust the pressure and power accordingly. This is vital because there is not much information to gain from the patient’s facial expression. It is far more accurate to receive this information by touch, than it is to ask the patient about the reaction of unconscious tension in muscle tissue. In cases of children with cerebral palsy, we have learned from experience that things are slightly different. The difference between a healthy adult and a child suffering from cerebral palsy are that the child exhibits unusual excessive muscle tension, and another noticeable difference between a healthy adult and a child is that we can see the reaction immediately on the child’s face. However only a mother can truly read this change of expression accurately, so we ask a mother to stay with a child and confirm the expression change by muscle defense.

Shiatsu treatment for your child.

Shiatsu treatment is an original hands-on skill. To master the skill, you have to repeat the steps accurately one by one from the beginning. To receive a dramatic result of Shiatsu treatment, you need to master this skill of unlocking the excess defensive muscle tissue and release the unease and fear of the patient, and make the patient feel totally relaxed mentally and physically. Even for a master who has government certification, acquiring the Shiatsu treatment skill is not very easy, but the effectiveness of Shiatsu from ones mother is an amazing fact. As it happens, a child always reacts without any muscular defenses from their mothers’ touch, as the level of trust causes the muscles to be very relaxed. When the correct technique is applied, the patient should not feel any pain during the entire treatment. As a result of minimizing the patient’s discomfort, the overall effectiveness of the treatment is improved. Being the patient’s mother, you can achieve great result with very little guidance and only a few words of advice.

Shiatsu treatment for Knee Pain

Written by Masanori Funatsu,
Translated by Hikari Ikenaga, Shiatsupractor & Judy Thompson, Shiatsupractor

In day to day life, there are many people suffering from knee or lower back pain. There are many different causes of knee pain. In standing, walking and kneeling, the burden of the upper body weight is borne by the knee joints. There can be upward as well as downward pressure and an injury easily happens during flexion, extension and rotation. Lateral pain used to be common but now medial pain is more common.

How to knee Function

The knee joint is the most complex joint in the human body. It dose not have just one pivot point. In the case of flexion, the pivot point can change. This adjusting allows complexity of movement.

Dislocation is caused when the joint rotates over 70 degrees and there is no sliding. With no movement of the pivot point, the knee joint can only flex to 120 degrees. No kneeling is possible.

  1. If the joint can flex only 0 to 20 degrees, only rotation is possible.
  2. If the joint can rotate and side, the knee can flex from 20 to 150 degrees without dislocation. Kneeling is possible if the knee flexes 150 degrees.

Causes and Conditions

Knee pain can be caused by over exertion. Tightness of the knee joint can be caused by lack of exercise. Injuries to muscles, ligaments and tendons and fatigued muscles as well as lower back and limb pain are all connected to knee pain. Aging (arthritis knee deformities), accidents (contusion, sprain, fracture), chronic rheumatism of the joint, injury to the patella, too rapid growth during adolescence, fluid in the joint and sports injuries, gout knee arthritis can all cause knee pain.

There are subjective as well as objective symptoms. Such as: inability to walk due to pain, starting to walk is painful, standing up is painful, standing for an extended time is painful, kneeling is painful, when lying on the stomach the knee is painful, there is continuous pain, there is pain when ascending or descending stairs.

Shiatsu treatment of Knee Pain

Conditions related of the knee pain.

Chronic fatigue, Osteoporosis
Diabetes, Arteriosclerosis, Myocardial infarction, Stroke, High blood pressure
Stomach pain, Feeling of cold, Low blood pressure
Muscle and joint rheumatism, Hip joint dislocation
Headache, Frozen shoulder, Gout
Herniated disk, Sciatica, Low back pain
Sprain, Contusion, Fracture
Others accident, too much exercise

Muscles and Nerves need for treatments

Quadriceps femoris
Rectus femoris, Femoral nerve
Vastus lateraris, Femoral nerve
Vastus intermedius, Femoral nerve
Vastus medialis, Femoral nerve
Adductor magnus, Obturator nerve
One part of adductor magnus, Sciatic nerve
Sartorius, Femoral nerve
Biceps femoris, Sciatic nerve
Semimembranosus, Tibial nerve
Semitendinosu,s Tibial nerve
Illiotibial tract, Sup.gluteal nerve

Lower limb

Tibialis anterior, Deep peroneal nerve
Extensor digitorum longus, Deep peroneal nerve
Extensor hallucis longus, Deep peroneal nerve
Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis Superficial peroneal nerve
Gastronemius, Tibial nerve
Soleus, Tibial nerve
Flexor hallucis longusk Tibial nerve
Flexor digitorum longus, Tibial nerve
Tibialis posterior, Tibial nerve

Shiatsu treatment of knee pain

(may be associated with shoulder pain)

Full body basic Shiatsu treatment


Standard pressure, Sustained pressure, Interrupted pressure, Palm pressure


Fukuga position

sacral region, gluteal region, femoral region, popliteal fossa

Gyouga position

femoral region, patellar region, lower limb

Ouga position

gruteal region, Namikoshi pressure point

Stage of pressure intensity

light pressure, medium pressure, strong pressure

Step 1

left side of body- strong pressure to the sacral and gluteal regions as well as sustained pressure to the Namikoshi point. Apply standard pressure to the posterior femoral region. To the reaction Points of the shyoufu, lnmon tusbos, apply strong, medium pressure. Then, grasping the posterior femoral region with the fingers, treat the lateral femoral region with thumb-by thumb pressure.


Treating the reaction points of ichiyuu, gouyou, shouzan tsubos, using standard pressure. (light, medium pressure). Treat the calf of the leg with the thumbs on the lateral side and fingers on the medial side, “squeezing” as in the basic treatment using light and medium pressure and the sole of the foot with strong and sustained pressure. If there are sensitive points, we can use strong, sustained presser on then.


Continuing with the patient in fukuga position, flex the left knee 45 degrees. Treat the reaction points of hikan and ryoukyuu using standard and sustained pressure. Move to the inryousen and sanlee tsubos of the lower limb applying sustained pressure. Treat any sensitive points in the same way. Then apply pressure to the right side ofinryousen. Return the leg to straight position.

Step 4

Holding the posterior femoral region with the fingers, apply pressure with the thumbs to the anterior femoral region. Using strong and sustained pressure, treat ryoukyuu and kekkai reaction points. Using interrupted pressure, treat reaction points of cyuutoku, youkan. Then, bend the knee at a 45 degrees angle and treat the reaction points of gori, shitsukan, kyokusen using light but sustained pressure.

Step 5

Extended knee. Behind the knee treat sensitive points with interrupted and sustained pressure. Using standard pressure, treat youryousen, sanlee and inryousen. Then using strong, sustained pressure on any sensitive points. Treat the toes as in the basic treatment.

Step 6

Ouga position- treat the Namikoshi point, lower back and legs.

My Shiatsu Story

Written by Kensen Saito,

"Shiatsu" sounds simple enough. The word "Shiatsu" literally means " Thumb & Finger Pressure", in Japanese. The technique involves a trained Practitioner, pressing with his thumbs and palms, on a pattern of certain points spread over the body. "Shiatsu" relieves Pain, promotes Relaxation; and gives people a wonderful sense of their body.

"Shiatsu" can be especially effective in relieving Back Pain, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Arthritis, Whiplash, Stiff Neck and Shoulders, Headache, and Insomnia. It speeds recovery after illness. It cultivates Mental Focus and Concentration. In some way, "Shiatsu" also stimulates creativity in individuals. I have seen this repeatedly on people at my Clinic. I am about to tell you, how today's "Shiatsu" developed; how I learned to practice it; and how I have become able to help Actors, Singers, Professional Athletes, Members of Parliament, Lawyers, Homemakers and many others. I will also give you my observations on how it works, based on more than twenty five years of experience; as well as sharing a few ideas about how to practice "Shiatsu" on yourself. I will illustrate how "Shiatsu" , as a technique, can have such a wide variety of uses.

"Shiatsu" is not an Oriental form of Medicine. Nor is a Western Medicine. Rather, it has been classified as "Natural and Preventive Health Care" There are so many chemicals and so much pollution these days; but "Shiatsu" , as a Therapy, uses only the body own natural chemicals for healing, causing no pollution at all.

"Shiatsu" works for people of all ages and stages of life. It can soothe an infant; and cease thpain of aging.

"Shiatsu" is pretty amazing; but it is not magic. It is not some spaced-out "New Age" spiritual theory. It has nothing to do with Meridian Lines. There is nothing mystical or incomprehensible about it. "Shiatsu" Therapy is scientifically valid. It is based on sound, concrete, scientific reasons.

"Shiatsu" works where it is needed, because it stimulates the body to use its own forces at its best. It triggers the release of Hormones and body chemicals necessary to heal, to soothe; to allow your body and mind to perform at their peak. This gives it an extraordinary range of operation. It sends its message, to reach the different parts of the body, through the largest sensory organ we have The Skin. Part of its effectiveness comes from the fact, that it uses Skin-to-Skin contact in the form of the human touch. This is a very basic human need, which we have all too often forgotten, in our mad rush towards bigger and better microchips.

Touch is an important kind of communication. We need it in the process of Healing; and we also need it to maintain our Personal Health.

I love to work with "Shiatsu" , because it is completely natural. Its effects come drug-free. There are no Side-Effects. Side-Effects from the drugs which people take, actually make the human body systems weaker. We need to concentrate our energies more on stimulating the body's own Natural Healing Power.

Today, we rely too much on drugs and surgery, in our search for Health. We go looking for Health Care; and get sick care instead. We need to focus more on preventive techniques like "Shiatsu" , rather than waiting until we get sick and then rely on operations and chemicals to address the disease.

Doctors should not be expected to be drug-dealers. They should be taught in Medical School, about the effectiveness of things like Nutrition, Tai Chi, Yoga; and "Shiatsu", as Preventive Health Care.

Since Physicians are not taught about these things, many people are supplementing their doctor-visits by consulting a Naturopath; and with other ways of using Natural Healing. Our whole society needs to spend more money, education and energy on Preventive Health Care.

In days gone by, there were many Natural Medicines and Therapies in use. We are coming through an era devoted almost exclusively to conventional Medicine. The next generation will have the opportunity to use the best of both worlds. It is important for the young generation, to know the natural ways, the alternative approaches to Health as well as the conventional ones.

I learned "Shiatsu" from the man, who developed it as it is practiced in Japan today, namely from Tokujiro Namikoshi. He developed the technique as a child, to ease his mother's pain.

Tokujiro was born in 1905, joining a family of four children. His father had an Umbrella Business on Shikoku Island, in the southern part of Japan. One year, the weather was so rainy and wet, that the glue would not dry on the umbrellas in time to meet the deadline for some large orders from China, forcing his father into bankruptcy. His father decided to restart his life; and the family moved to Hokkaido, the northern Japanese Island.

It was a long, tough trip in late autumn; from the hot weather in their old home, to extremely cold, harsh weather at their destination. When the family reached the end of their journey, they found that it was a wild place; only a hut, with no heat or running water. The parents and their five children settled in as best they could in these stressful circumstances; but soon Tokujiro's mother was suffering terrible from aches and pains in all her joints. She had developed Rheumatoid Arthritis.

They had moved to such a small village, into such a primitive area, that there was no Doctor. Nothing could be done for her; so the five children took turns rubbing her painful joins, in an effort to do something to help. After some experience with this, their mother said, that Tokujiro's hands were the best at relieving her pains. He took on the job as her physical therapist, while his brothers and sisters divided up their mother's chores as it concerns cooking and cleaning.

Tokujiro's mother told him, that it felt better when he pressed on her body, rather than stroking or rubbing. So he concentrated on doing exactly that. One day he was pressing different areas, when he found a point, which was very cold and stiff to his touch. He spent some time and effort to press on that point. His mother said that this eased her pain. He pressed that point daily; and the more this hard spot softened under his finger pressure, the more pain was relieved; and the faster his mother recovered.

Eventually, with the help to Tokujiro's treatment, his mother's Rheumatoid Arthritis was gone. She lived to be 88, in good Health.

It evidently came naturally to Tokujiro, to be a therapist. In his small village, the message spread quickly through word of mouth, that this boy was something special. When his school principal's wife, who had recently given birth, found that she was unable to produce milk to nurse her baby, the principal asked Tokujiro to help. He used his pressure technique; and the woman was freely able to produce milk for her child.

During a special assembly at the school, when the principal spoke in public about the wonderful job Tokujiro had done, in helping his mother and the principal's family, the body felt proud and happy. He decided at that moment, that he would spend his life using the pressure technique to help people.

A Buddhist Monk living in the village, became aware of Tokujiro's deeds; and after meeting him, said that this boy is the reincarnation of a high ranking Buddhist Monk who healed many people. He began to take Tokujiro on his rounds to visit villagers who were having problems with aches and pains. Tokujiro used his pressing technique; and used his natural skill at locating and working out stiff points; to great and good effect.

When Tokujiro was in his late teens, the Monk went with him to the nearest City, where they planned to have him try his pressing technique on City dwellers. They were soon arrested by Police, for practicing without a License. They stayed overnight in jail; then returned to their own village.

Tokujiro told his family about his experience. His older brother suggested, that he go to Tokyo; and get a License to use his technique. He decided that his brother's advice was good; and he followed it.

In those days, there were only two kinds of natural therapy in Japan. A "western-style" (Swedish) massage; and an ancient Chinese (Acupressure) massage technique called "Anma" . Tokujiro studied Anma under an expert; and earned his License. He then returned to Hokkaido; and opened his first Clinic, offering neither Anma, nor Massage; but the pressing technique, which had developed by himself.

As he practiced in his own way, he wondered what he should call his Method. He saw the word "Shiatsu" in a magazine article, referring to "finger pressure" . He liked it. Although he was mostly using his thumbs for pressure at the time, in Japan, the thumbs are called "fingers" just the same. Thus, the word "Shiatsu" described very well what he was doing. Therefore, he decided to call his technique "Shiatsu" .

As he practiced "Shiatsu" , Tokujiro studied Anatomy; and developed a scientific theory, which explains "Shiatsu". He learned that when he pressed certain points on his mother's body, it was like giving her natural cortisone shots, because he was stimulating her adrenal glands. On other results, he found out, that they have similar scientific explanations.

The more he studied and thought about it, the more Tokujiro came to realize, that the human body has everything it needs: It produces all the chemicals it needs to heal itself. Under stress, the body is put into a state of imbalance, when it does not produce the right kind and amount of chemicals. Instead, it can produce destructive substances. "Shiatsu" can reduce the effects of stress on the body; and nudge it back towards a healthy state of balance.

Tokujiro took the following words as a Slogan for Shiatsu: "The heart of Shiatsu is a mother's love." This sets out the importance of the caring, healing attitude of the person who performs "Shiatsu" on someone else.

He said, that modern society depends too much on drugs and surgery. It is possible, through "Shiatsu", for a person to develop tremendous Health and Strength. "Shiatsu" stimulates a person's inner healing power, so that the body can work to heal itself. It is like a switch by which the body's healing power is turned on.

When Tokujiro was in his mid twenties, practicing at his Sapporo Clinic, a famous philosopher called Gohei Ishimaru, came to Hokkaido by train one day, to deliver a lecture to a sold-out audience of 2,000 people; an event, sponsored by the local newspaper. Ishimaru was in a weakened condition; and would deliver his lecture sitting down, instead of standing.

When he arrived at the Sapporo railway station, he collapsed on the platform. His assistant had to help to the Inn; and a Doctor was called. The Doctor recommended that he cancel his speech for that evening. The sponsors from the newspaper were in panic, but one writer had heard of Tokujiro Namikoshi's reputation, so they called on him to help.

Tokujiro came to the inn where the philosopher was staying; did "Shiatsu" on him until he appeared to be much better. On that evening, instead of canceling, Ishimaru presented a two-hour speech, standing up. He was amazed himself, at his heightened physical strength and well being, after Tokujiro's treatment.

Your hands are very precious, he said to Tokujiro. I want to insure your thumbs.

He insured Tokujiro's thumbs for 100,000 yen. In today's Dollars, this would be $10 million. This was a tremendous amount of insurance. In those days, in Japan, the highest amount of disability insurance was carried by a famous baseball pitcher, Miyataka, who had his right arm insured for 20,000 yen. So, 100,000 yen for Tokujiro's thumbs, was a tremendous amount of insurance. Needless to say, this story made the national newspaper.

Ishimaru urged Tokujiro, to practice his "Shiatsu" in Tokyo, where a large number and variety of people could benefit from it. By that time, Tokujiro was married; and had children; but he took the philosopher's advice. He left his Hokkaido Clinic; and moved his family to Tokyo, at the age of 28. Ishimaru introduced him to many important people; but "Shiatsu" was so new and unknown, that it took many years before he successfully established his expanded practice.

He had to move seven times, usually because he could not pay the rent. When he moved the eighth time, he told himself: "This is where I stay, fail or succeed, I will not move again." His "Shiatsu Collage" of today is still in that very place. This is where I studied "Shiatsu" myself, years ago.

In his early years of practice, Tokujiro did mostly house-calls; and was thus limited to helping only seven or eight people a day; but he had come to Tokyo, to spread the practice of his method; to help people. In 1940, he established his school; and began to train "Shiatsu Practitioners". Eventually, the practitioners got together and approached the Government, asking for legal recognition of "Shiatsu".

After World-War II, U.S.-General Douglas McArthur directed the Japanese Health Ministry. There were more than 300 unregulated therapies in Japan at that time. McArthur ordered all 300 to be researched by scientists at the Universities, to document which ones had scientific proof of merit; and which did not.

At the end of eight years, the Universities reported back; and "Shiatsu" was the only one therapeutic practice, which received scientific approval. In 1955, the Japanese Health Ministry legally recognized "Shiatsu" and it became a licensed therapy.

Unfortunately, massage, "Shiatsu" and traditional Anma massage, come under one license Japan, which is very confusing. It enables people who get a license in one of the therapies, to hang out a "Shiatsu" sign, when they have no "Shiatsu" training at all.

Tokujiro is not a big person; but his thumbs are unusually large; almost twice the size of the thumbs of a person with average-size hands. He says, that the hands are very important; and that touch is one of the crucial elements, which make "Shiatsu" so powerful. I know that this is true, from my own experience with thousands of "Shiatsu" patients over the years.

When we practice "Shiatsu" regularly, the tips of the thumbs and fingers get really soft. This is good, because they need to be extremely sensitive, to pick up messages from the patient?fs body. Our thumbs are the best place on our body, from which to release energy. When we practice "Shiatsu" , we release something from ourselves; and we absorb something from the other person.

Since my hands are so sensitive and so important in my work, I have given them a lot of thought. I have often wondered what fingerprints are made for. Why do we have these little twirls of skin on our fingertips? My own ideas are that these twirls can release invisible energy particles; and absorb others.

There is something there; I feel it in my work. After a treatment, I have some discomfort; an irritable sensation in may hands, if I fail to wash them within three minutes of finishing a treatment. I know, that our skin breathes; but there is more than this. There is more coming in and going out, than the mere breathing of the skin.

The human hand is a wondrous thing. It is the most sensitive part of the body. There are many sense receptors in the fingers, thumbs and palm area.

It is important, that "Shiatsu" is not performed with any mechanical devices, but only by human hands. When someone, in practicing "Shiatsu" , finds a point of tightness, pressure from the elbows would not ease it. Pushing with a pen or stick would not be useful. Our hand is sensitive and precise enough, to provide exactly what is needed. They can unknot little muscles, tendons and ligaments, one by one.

To get a good result, the patient needs to be relaxed. Our hands; and a proper amount of pressure, can keep a patient relaxed. It is only the hands, which can do this. The amount of pressure in a "Shiatsu" treatment has to be comfortable for the patient and the practitioner.

Nothing is forced, in a "Shiatsu" treatment. The pressure is gentle and comfortable. It took me almost seven years to understand the right level of pressure in "Shiatsu" . The practitioner has to give exactly the right amount of pressure, in exactly the right place. If the pressure is too strong, it is uncomfortable. It is too soft, it does not work. It has to be very precise. The placement of thumbs and hands has to be just right. There are many important nerves and arteries running through our body. Pressing on the right point will encourage production of the appropriate body chemicals, to help with a particular problem. This is also true, in a "Shiatsu" treatment for someone who does not feel any particular physical discomfort. The proper amount of pressure in the right places, will help the patient to relax into a positive and healthy state of mind and being. Thus, "Shiatsu" can be a key to preventive Personal Health Care.

It can be similar to a state of good meditation, or a 'runner's high.' Positive chemical changes in the body can make you feel good; "Shiatsu" can put you in that state. This is useful and pleasant, not only to people who are already in excellent Health. Being relaxed, is a key to human Health and Recovery? Research shows that when people are relaxed, their immune system is stronger.

When someone is under heavy stress, such as is brought about through divorce or a death in the family, the functions of the immune system are lowered. The cardio-vascular system is affected, likely resulting in higher blood pressure. Such people probably have more digestive upsets and stomach problems; and are more at risk of developing an illness.

Stress and discomfort are the direct opposite to that good, relaxed feeling, which is the key to the healthy functioning of the body.

For an effective "Shiatsu" treatment, the mind of the practitioner needs to be concentrated on the treatment. Giving "Shiatsu" is not something, which you can do while you are watching your favored Sit-com on TV it is very important to focus on helping this person, who is presently your patient.

There is a trust between the practitioner and the person who is receiving the treatment. Your hands and your mind are connected. This is crucial to the effectiveness of the treatment. If your mind is not with your hands during treatment, the patient can feel that.

It can be difficult for a "Shiatsu" practitioner, if he is worrying about his own personal problems, or is thinking about what to have for dinner; such is no good. You really need that concentration on the patient's well being.

"Shiatsu" is a Science, because everyone can learn it. "Shiatsu" is also a real Art, because it depends on the personality and personal ability of the practitioner. "Shiatsu" is a great boon to the person who decides to get the treatment.

Shiatsu and Its Overseas Diffusion

Written by : Kiyoshi Ikenaga, Shiatsmaster
Translated by : Yumi Yabuta
Edited by : Samantha Orr Levrat, Shiatsupractor


  • The Definition of Shiatsu
  • The Essence of Shiatsu
  • The History of Shiatsu (The Beginning- The Origin of Shiatsu)
  • The History of Shiatsu (The Middle - The Path to Legal Recognition)
  • The History of Shiatsu (The Latter Part - Derivative Shiatsu and Other Derivatives)
  • Shiatsu Diffusion--Conditions Overseas and Problems
  • Shiatsu World Standardized Licenses--Shiatsupractor
  • Shiatsu and Derivative Shiatsu
  • 2200-Hour Standard Curriculum for Shiatsupractor Status
  • Bibliography & References

The Definition of Shiatsu

When I practice Shiatsu abroad, the question of defining Shiatsu becomes extremely important. Japan is the place of origin of Shiatsu and most people in Japan know what Shiatsu is. Even if people do not understand the exact definition of Shiatsu, they can assume the general meaning from the Kanji (Japanese updated Chinese characters) used to describe the word. Recently, however, while Shiatsu has become known in foreign countries, the word itself does not have meaning in Latin alphabet characters. An explanation is, therefore, needed. To translate the meaning of Shiatsu in English, “SHI” is finger and “OYAYUBI” is thumb. “ATSU” is pressure, so Shiatsu literally translated means “finger pressure” or “thumb pressure”. The definition seems simple. The problem, however, is not the word. To diffuse Shiatsu, Japanese original hands-on therapy, accurately, it is very important to give instructions based upon the legal grounds of Shiatsu Therapy as recognized by Japan’s “Anma, Massage and Shiatsu practitioners, Acupuncture practitioners, and Moxibustion practitioners Act.” Shiatsu was first recognized in Japanese law in 1955, and in the text book “Theory and Practice of Shiatsu” published by the medical department of the Ministry of Welfare (Current Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) in December 1957, Shiatsu is defined as follows:

“Shiatsu technique refers to the use of fingers and the palm of one’s hands to apply pressure to particular sections on the surface of the body for the purpose of correcting the imbalances of the body, and for maintaining and promoting health. It is also a method contributing to the healing of specific illnesses.”

The above translation of the definition of Shiatsu can be found on the CSSBC website. This being said, the following three points were set as the major premise of Shiatsu therapy:

  1. To use the bare hands. (No tools, elbows, knees, feet etc.)
  2. To press the surface of the body. (No rubbing, stroking, or pulling)
  3. To aim for the maintenance and enhancement of health or recovery of illnesses.

These three concepts are the most important when explaining Shiatsu overseas.

The Essence of Shiatsu

The characteristic of Shiatsu is to practice using only the fingers, palms and especially the thumbs, but the essence of Shiatsu is “Diagnosis and Therapy combined.” “Diagnosis and Therapy combined” is the ability of the practitioner to use his sensory organs (palms, fingers and thumbs) to detect irregularities, such as stiffness of the surface of the body, and to promptly correct or heal these problems. To acquire this amazing skill takes considerable experience. The defining difference between Shiatsu therapy and modern and Kampo medicine (also known as Traditional Chinese Medicine, such as acupuncture and moxibustion) is this “Diagnosis and Therapy combined”; the fact that Shiatsu does not always require previous diagnosis before commencing treatment. In modern medicine, the course of treatment can only be decided after a diagnosis has been made. In TCM, it is also necessary to diagnose before treating. In Shiatsu Therapy, practitioners promote the prevention and recovery of illnesses by stimulating the immune system and natural healing power that people already possess. Therefore, even without a diagnosis or with a language barrier, practitioners can, to quote Toru Namikoshi Sensei, treat patients with “thumbs and thin futon” at any time. Treating the body as a whole helps to restore the physical functions of the nervous system, circulatory system, bone structure, muscles, and internal secretion and stimulates its natural ability to heal illness. That being said, skilled practitioners can contribute considerably to regional health and medical treatment.

History of Shiatsu (The Beginning- The Origin of Shiatsu)

The first occurrences of Shiatsu began with “TEATE, which literally translated means 'hands-on' in Japanese. In today’s vocabulary it also means “treatment”. Since ancient times, humans have instinctively known that pain can be suppressed by putting a hand on the affected area. The oldest record of sickness being treated by “TEATE” is about two thousand years ago in the mythical age. Also, recorded in an old Japanese poem, is an incident in which Sukunahikonakami, the father of Japanese medicine, cured sickness with his bare hands. These types of legends, of course, are not only limited to Japan and have resulted in the development of hands-on therapies throughout the world, such as massage in Europe and Anma in China (called Tsui-na in contemporary China). After the prehistoric times, Kampo medicine, was imported from mainland China through the Korean peninsula with the transmission of Buddhism. In 984, Yasuyori Tanba wrote what is now the oldest medical book, entitled “Ishinboh”, that currently exists in Japan and Kampo medicine became the center of Japanese medicine. The position of Kampo medicine was maintained until the Meiji Revolution (1867). Kampo medicine included the hands-on therapy “Anma” in addition to its mainstream practices: acupuncture, moxibustion, and Chinese medicine. In the Edo period, great hands-on therapy practitioners (Anma practitioners), such as Ryouzan Goto and Shinsai Ota, appeared one after another. In the last years of the Edo period, Genpaku Sugita and Ryoutaku Maeno started the Western medicine prosperity of the Meiji Period by translating “Kaitaishinsho (an anatomy text from the Netherlands)”. With the influx of the newest medicine from western countries, many hands-on therapies such as massage, chiropractic, osteopathy and spongio therapy were also imported. In addition to these foreign therapies, there were more than three hundred civil treatments; these were ancient Japanese treatments imported from China: Anma, Douin, Kappo, Jyujutsu, etc. and their combined forms. In 1912, at the age of seven, the founder of Shiatsu Therapy, Tokujiro Namikoshi, moved to Rusutsu Village, Hokkaido from Kagawa prefecture, in Shikoku Island. At that time, the body of Tokujiro’s mother, Masa, was riddled with pain due to the fatigue of the trip and the extreme change in environment. In those days, medicine and doctors were hard to find. Tokujiro could not stand to watch his mother suffering and he tried to nurse her by “rubbing” and “stroking”. He noticed, however, that it was by pressing and relieving stiffness from her body with his thumbs that her condition showed the most improvement. Based on this observation, he developed a method of applying pressure that was dependent upon his mother’s temperature and stiffness. As a result, his mother made a complete recovery. Her condition is now termed “rheumatism”; her recovery was the result of “TEATE” from a child who desperately wanted to cure his mother. Based on this experience, after much trial and error and research, “Shiatsu Therapy” was defined by the Health Ministry of Japan.
In 1925, the world’s first Shiatsu treatment clinic was opened in Muroran, Hokkaido. In 1934, Tokujiro Namikoshi published the article “Shiatsu Therapy and Physiology.” In 1940, he opened Japan Shiatsu College. The word “Shiatsu” was first used in the 1920s by Tenpeki Tamai and his writing “Shiatsu Therapy” was published in 1939.

The History of Shiatsu (The Middle - The Path to Legal Recognition)

By the end of the Second World War, much of Japanese lifestyle, values, and common ideas had done a 180 degree turn, and the attitude toward civil medical treatment was no exception. The Japan Shiatsu School (now the Japan Shiatsu College) was established by Tokujiro Namikoshi in 1940. The school sent out many practitioners who were certified by the “Metropolitan Police Board Act” in 1930. In those days, most civil medical treatments (called quasi-medicine), including Shiatsu, were not licensed based on a standardized national examination. They were part of a reporting system under police jurisdiction. In 1947, soon after the war ended, the “Anma, Acupuncture, Moxibustion, Jyudo-Aliment Business Act” was enacted by the leader of the GHQ. This is now known as the “Anma, Massage and Shiatsu practitioners, Acupuncture practitioners and Moxibustion practitioners Act.” Under this law, Shiatsu and other civil medical treatments that were recognized by the reporting system were given a suspended sentence until 1955. In 1955, during the 22nd session of the Diet, the government made a partial amendment to the “Anma, Acupuncture, Moxibustion, and Jyudo-Aliment Business Act”. A public hearing, with witnesses summoned from every sector of society, was held by a committee of the House of Social Labor Councilors. In the bill, the expression of “Anma” was revised to “Anma (including Massage and Shiatsu)”. The intention of the bill was to ban civil medical treatments other than Anma, Massage, and Shiatsu. The seven main subjects for discussion at the public hearing were as follows:

  1. Relations between medicine and quasi-medicines
  2. Relations between Anma and Shiatsu
  3. Relations between Shiatsu and medicine
  4. Educational and business standards for quasi-medicines
  5. Interpretation of the eight year suspension period introduced by the “Anma, Moxibustion, Jyudo-Aliment Business Act”
  6. Change or close any quasi-medicine practices, except Shiatsu practices within three year Banning of quasi-medicines

This public hearing of amendments was extremely important in the history of Shiatsu because the bill was passed with the expression of “Anma (including Massage and Shiatsu)”. This was the first time in history that the word “Shiatsu” appeared in law. In 1957, two years after the hearing, the text book that provides the definition of Shiatsu was published by the Health Ministry of Japan. Moreover, the senseis who were the witnesses at the public hearing published many writings about Shiatsu which were widely recognized by society. That was also the period in which the Japan Shiatsu College became an authorized school by the Minister of Health. Through these processes, another amendment was made in 1964, and the name “Anma (including Massage and Shiatsu)” became the expression of “Anma, Massage and Shiatsu”. That was the point at which Shiatsu finally obtained legal recognition as a Japanese original method of medical treatment. The testimonies of witnesses from the 22nd session of Diet at the House of Social Labor Councilors in 1955 were the basis for the “Anma, Massage and Shiatsu practitioners, Acupuncture practitioners, and Moxibustion practitioners Act” that separated Shiatsu, as well as massage, from “Anma”. Over the next nine years, many amendments were made to the laws which eventually positioned Shiatsu as an independent hands-on therapy. That public hearing and the nine year movement that followed were critical in the establishment, organization, and legal recognition of Shiatsu, and most of what we recognize as Shiatsu Therapy today was established during that period. The following is a list of the Senseis who attended this public hearing as witnesses and defended their point of view:

  • Dr. Kunisaku Shimura, Director of the Japan Doctors Association.
  • Dr. Naohisa Fujii, Honorary Professor of Tokyo Medical University.
  • Dr. Kazumi Yarimotsu, Lecturer of the Former Yokohama Medical University.
  • Dr. Katsusuke Serizawa, Special Instructors Training Lecturer of Tokyo Education University.
  • Yoshikatsu Komori, President of the Japan Acupuncture Moxibustion Massage Association.
  • Hiroshi Hanada, President of the Japan Acupuncture Moxibustion Practitioners Association.
  • Mitsuo Kekino, President of the Kyoto Acupuncture Moxibustion Massage Association.
  • Shigeru Matsumoto, Director of the National Treatment Technique Cooperation.
  • Yoshizumi Utsunomiya,Chairman of the National Treatment Technique Cooperation.
  • Tokujiro Namikoshi, President of the Japan Shiatsu Association.
  • Dr. Iyuji Miki, Medical Professor of Toyo University.

On behalf of the government, the Health Ministry of Japan, the Chief of the Public Health Bureau, the Chief of the Medical Bureau, and the Chief of the Pharmaceutics Bureau were in attendance. While the testimony of each sensei was recorded word for word, the following is a selection of some of the most important comments. First, the Director of the Japan Doctors Association, Shimura Sensei, stated that he considered Anma, Massage, and Shiatsu to be the same no matter what the origin and the theory because they are all hands-on therapies; this was a common perception among doctors (and society) in those days. Next, the Honorary Professor of Tokyo Medical University, Fujii Sensei, who, as requested by the Health Ministry of Japan, spent two years (1949-50) at Tokyo Medical University researching and comparing the terms “Shiatsu”, “Anma” and “Massage” concluded that Shiatsu is a reflex experience treatment based on Western medical knowledge--like American Chiropractic, Osteopathy, Spongio Therapy, and German Natool Therapy, etc—and is therefore different from Anma which is part of Kampo medicine. Fujii Sensei wrote “Shiatsu Theory and Outline”. Serizawa Sensei, who represented Acupuncture, Moxibustion, and Anma, asserted that Shiatsu (and Massage) were forms of Anma. In 1957, however, he published “Shiatsu Theory and Practice”. In the book, he stated that Shiatsu drew on a stream of old-style Anma, but also Japanese original hands-on therapy. Namikoshi Sensei went to the US in 1953 to research many kind of hands-on therapy, including Chiropractic, in addition to Shiatsu which he originally developed. He also tried to outline “Shiatsu Therapy” to establish the Japan Shiatsu College. He attended the public hearing to represent the Shiatsu society as a President of Japan Shiatsu Association. He strongly asserted the originality of Shiatsu. His theory, along with the results of Tokyo Medical University’s research for the Health Ministry of Japan from 1949-50, would become the basis for legalization of Shiatsu. His theory also defined the today’s form of “Shiatsu Therapy”. Serizawa Sensei, who was an authority on Kampo medicine and wrote many books relating to Shiatsu, was strongly influenced by Namikoshi Sensei’s Shiatsu theory. Even years later, at the celebration party of Namikoshi Sensei’s eighty-eighth birthday, Serizawa Sensei expressed his belief that Namikoshi Sensei is the founder of Shiatsu by stating, “Japanese Shiatsu is Namikoshi Shiatsu, Namikoshi Shiatsu is Japanese Shiatsu”

The History of Shiatsu (The Latter Part - Derivative Shiatsu and Other Derivatives)

In many regions of the world, including sometimes Japan, people associate Shiatsu with Eastern medicine. However, as previously stated, Shiatsu has been established as a Japanese original hands-on therapy that is different from Anma of Kampo medicine’s hands-on therapy. The Father of Shiatsu Therapy and the founder of the Japan Shiatsu College, Tokujiro Namikoshi Sensei, declared, “My Shiatsu does not have any influence from Kampo medicine.” Also, as previously mentioned, this statement was supported by the 1949-50 research results of Tokyo Medical University lead by honorary professor Naohisa Fujii Sensei. The practice of combining Shiatsu with Kampo medicine theory is called Keiraku Shiatsu or Meridian Shiatsu. In the 1972 book “Meridian and Shiatsu Therapy” written by Tadashi Izawa, there is a quote from Katsusuke Serizawa Sensei, who was the leading expert of Kampo medicine in those days. Serizawa Sensei stated, “From what I have heard, Shiatsu Therapy is a new, modern hands-on therapy based on chiropractic and balancing hands-on therapies , and it is different from the time-honored Anma method in the region of Kampo medicine. I am sure that the meridian theory of Kampo medicine started being combined with Shiatsu therapy is a derivative Shiatsu that came about after the war.” As this quote indicates, around the 1960s, Keiraku Shiatsu, which uses mainly thumb pressure applied to the meridian points of Kampo medicine, appeared and rapidly became popular after the Carina boom of 1972, which happened with the restoration of diplomatic relations between China and Japan. Tadashi Izawa Sensei, one of the graduates of the Japan Shiatsu College and a disciple of Namikoshi Sensei, noticed that the basic pressure points of Shiatsu Therapy tend to be consistent with Keiraku (Meridian) points of Kampo medicine and compiled “Illustration of Anpuku (the time-honored Anma method) and Shiatsu Therapy” (Illustration of Anpuku was written by Shinsai Ota, Anma practitioner in 1820s). After that, Namikoshi disciples developed many original theories. For example, Iwajiro Sato Sensei wrote “Shiatsu Therapy and Sho-atsu (palm pressure) Treatment” in 1994, and Shizuto Masunaga Sensei wrote “Zen Shiatsu”, in 1974; which relates Meridians and Shiatsu. And I published the writing “Tsubo Shiatsu (in English)” in 2003; I explain Tsubo (Keiketsu/meridian points) anatomically and physiologically, distinguishing them from the meridian lines used in Kampo medicine. Currently, both overseas and in Japan, there seems to be a trend toward creating derivative forms of Shiatsu by combining Meridian theory and Qi-gong theory with Shiatsu Therapy.

Shiatsu Diffusion - Conditions Overseas and Problems

Presently, interest in Japanese Shiatsu is spreading rapidly overseas, gaining support for its safe and effective method. There are, however, some problems. The most serious problem is that educational standards are all different and sometimes stray away from the original definition of Shiatsu. When I practice Shiatsu overseas, I am often asked, “What form of Shiatsu do you teach at your college?” indicating that derivative forms of Shiatsu are mistakenly believed to be equally defined as Shiatsu Therapy. More specifically I am asked, “Do you teach Namikoshi Shiatsu or Masunaga Shiatsu?” This is a very important question as “Namikoshi Shiatsu” indicates the 2500-Hour Shiatsu Therapy course as taught at the Japan Shiatsu College and recognized by the Health Ministry of Japan for licensing as a professional practitioner. On the contrary, “Masunaga Shiatsu” (also known as “Zen-Shiatsu” overseas) was developed by a Namikoshi disciple (graduate of the Japan Shiatsu College), Masunaga Seneei. The lectures of the Ioh-kai Shiatsu Center established by Masunaga Sensei are two and half hours per week and total of thirty hours for twelve weeks. This program is not certified by the Health Ministry of Japan to become a professional practitioner. Many other short courses and programs on derivative forms of Shiatsu are available throughout the world, but not unlike Masunaga Shiatsu they do not qualify participants to write the nationally recognized exam to become professional practitioners. To become a professional practitioner in Japan, one must learn Shiatsu Therapy as defined by the Health Ministry of Japan. Regardless of which derivative form of Shiatsu one wishes to practice, one must first become a licensed practitioner (Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Practitioner). For that reason, practitioners of all forms of Shiatsu have a basic standardized knowledge level. Overseas, however, in countries where Shiatsu is not regulated by law, it is possible to introduce oneself as a professional practitioner without having studied any of the basics of Shiatsu or medical basics of anatomy and physiology; all that is required is a short course on meridian theory or another derivative of Shiatsu. As a result, the standard of all practitioners is lowered which could be a critical problem as Shiatsu therapy gradually gains worldwide recognition. To maintain the reputation of Shiatsu and its qualified practitioners, it is imperative that an international standardized license for practitioners of Shiatsu Therapy be introduced.

Shiatsu World Standardized Licenses “Shiatsupractor®”

Shiatsupractor® is the name given to the recently introduced international standardized Shiatsu license. This international standardization will not only ensure quality by setting guidelines for the practitioners of Shiatsu therapy, but also for the instructors, worldwide. In the past, in countries where Shiatsu has not been regulated by law, instructors often have not learned the medical basics, such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, which are require subjects in Japan, and those instructors often focus entirely on their knowledge of Kampo medicine. The name Shiatsupractor® was first used in British Columbia, Canada in 1990’s has since been recognized by the International Shiatsu Association as the official name for the of the international standardized Shiatsu license. Presently, at the end of 2003, in the regions of North America (United States and Canada), Europe (member nations of the EU), and Japan, the use of Shiatsupractor® is officially protected as a registered trademark. In Japan, the educational standard for Shiatsupractor® approval corresponds to that of the licenses for Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Practitioners. In other regions, if there are no regulations by public officials in the country or states, the requirements are two years and 2200 hours in North America and two-to-three years and 1600 hours in Europe.

Shiatsu and Derivative Shiatsu

1. Original Shiatsu Therapy

The Road to the Recognition of Shiatsu:

  • 1912 Tokujiro Namikoshi Sensei invented the prototype
  • 1940 Creation of the Shiatsu school that later became known as the “Japan Shiatsu College”
  • 1955 The Health Ministry of Japan officially recognizes Shiatsu, Anma, and massage in the same category
  • 1957 The Health Ministry of Japan is sued over the legal definition of Shiatsu
  • 1964 The Health Ministry of Japan reviews the regulations and acknowledges Shiatsu, massage therapy and Anma as unique and independent therapeutic methods

In conclusion, because Shiatsu Therapy as developed by Tokujiro Namikoshi Sensei has been recognized on a civil and a government level, he is known as the father of Shiatsu. And, though many of his disciples developed their own forms of Shiatsu that have become known throughout the world and thus the original Shiatsu is often called “Namikoshi Shiatsu” to distinguish it from its derivatives, history proves that “Japanese Shiatsu is Namikoshi Shiatsu.” Shiatsu is Shiatsu.

2. Derivative Shiatsu Techniques & Theories

There are many Shiatsu workshops held in Japan. These workshops are mostly organized by graduate students from the Japan Shiatsu College, who learned Shiatsu directly from Tokujiro Namikoshi sensei. In some cases, the workshops become very popular not only in Japan but throughout the world. A good example is Zen-Shiatsu created by the late Shizuto Masunaga sensei. The techniques taught at these workshops, however, are not recognized as Shiatsu treatment according to government regulations. Consequently, if a person only has a certificate from attending a workshop, s/he is not eligible to take the government examination to become a professional Shiatsu practitioner. The techniques taught at these workshops are called 'Derivative Shiatsu' to distinguish them from the original Shiatsu taught at the school that is registered with the Ministry of Health of Japan.

The Following Are Well-Known Forms of Derivative Shiatsu:

Tsubo Shiatsu

Some of the accredited schools of the CSSBC teach Tsubo Shiatsu in the Advanced Shiatsu course. This course investigates Tsubo points from an anato-physiological point of view. Around 1980, Dr. Hiroshi Ishizuka M.D. (current principal of the Japan Shiatsu College) first introduced this theory in his seminars. In 2003, Kiyoshi Ikenaga sensei published the book “Tsubo Shiatsu” and finally presented the theory to the world. Ikenaga sensei studied Shiatsu directly from Namikoshi Sensei and graduated from the Japan Shiatsu College in 1986.

Keiraku (Meridian) Shiatsu:

This Shiatsu treatment is based on TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) theory. Tadashi Izawa sensei published his book “Meridian and Shiatsu Therapy” in 1964. Meridian is the joining of the points which represent the energy (ki) of the organ, body parts or body materials. In Meridian Shiatsu, practitioners press the Meridian points with their thumbs therefore some believe that this technique should be deemed as a form of Acupressure. There is no set theory with regards to the treatment. (Some use the Root-Branch Treatment theory, some just press the Meridian points which are close to the problem area). Izawa sensei studied Shiatsu directly from Namikoshi Sensei and graduated from the Japan Shiatsu College in 1946. Later, he became an instructor at the college.

Zen (Ioh kai) Shiatsu:

This form of Shiatsu was derived by Shizuto Masunaga sensei. Because “Zen” is a religious word, this form of treatment was not called “Zen Shiatsu” in Japan. This is a part of Meridian Shiatsu, but follows a separate Meridian theory from that of TCM. In Zen Shiatsu, practitioners use their elbows, knees and bony parts of the body to apply stronger pressure to the Meridian points instead of using their thumbs, fingers or palms. For this reason, some believe that this technique should not be defined as “Shiatsu”. A three-month long, non-credit workshop is available at the “Ioh-kai Shiatsu Centre”, opened by Masunaga sensei in Japan. Masunaga sensei studied Shiatsu directly from Namikoshi Sensei and graduated from the Japan Shiatsu College in 1958.

Tao Shiatsu:

Ryukyu Endo sensei introduced this form of Derivative Shiatsu. He followed Zen Shiatsu theory, but left “Ioh-kai” after Masunaga sensei died. This theory contains religious and spiritual practicum, for example reciting a Buddhist prayer before lectures. There are several one- and two-day workshops available in Tokyo and Kyoto. Endo sensei studied Shiatsu directly from Namikoshi Sensei and graduated from the Japan Shiatsu College.

Oha Shiatsu:

OHASHIATSU is a registered trademark. This technique was derived by Ohashi sensei, who did not graduate from the Japan Shiatsu College. He took a three-day Shiatsu workshop, which was held by Tokujiro Namikoshi sensei when he came to U.S.A in 1973. This derivative contains less thumb pressure application to the body and focuses more on balancing the body through the “Seitai” technique. Seitai is type of stretch or manipulation done to the body to maintain the best balance of the body.

Macrobiotic Shiatsu:

The Macrobiotic Diet is well known in the world right now. Michio Kushi sensei is the developer of the Macrobiotic Diet. He mainly practices complementary medicine which is based on diet, acupuncture, meditation, Shiatsu and Chinese Herbal Medicine. They teach Macrobiotic Shiatsu as part of the Macrobiotic Career Training course at the Kushi Institute (non-profit educational organization) in Vermont, U.S.A. Kushi sensei was not trained in Shiatsu therapy at the Japan Shiatsu College. Some of the accredited schools of the CSSBC teach the Macrobiotic Diet in the Nutrition course.


Shiatsu treatment technique is enhanced and learned through experience and thus different Shiatsu techniques will exist with each Shiatsu practitioner. There should, however, be a minimum of Shiatsu training and education completed in an appropriate Shiatsu training college or school. (The standards of such an institution should be the same as those set by the Ministry of Health of Japan. These standards include Basic Shiatsu training; basic medical sciences such as Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology; and clinical practicum. There should be a minimum of 2 years (2000 hours) of training. A practitioner who completes a short-term workshop should not be called a professional “Practitioner”.

2200-Hour Standard Curriculum for Shiatsupractor Status

Reference from the minimum standard of the Canadian Shiatsu Society of British Colombia:

1. Compulsory Section - 1600 hours


Basic Shiatsu / Shiatsu Foundation - 150 hours

Theory & Practice

Advanced Shiatsu -150 hours
Treating specific pathological conditions
Derivative Shiatsu techniques & theories (optional)
Clinical experience - 500 hours

Medical Foundations

Anatomy - 300 hours
Physiology - 300 hours
Pathology - 100 hours
Kinesiology - 50 hours

Others - 50 hours

Ethics and Professionalism
First Aid and CPR
Medical Lows

2. Optional Section - 600 hours

Kampo Medicine (TCM)
Japanese Culture
Business Management


浪越 雄二



1955(昭和 30)年に、初めて法律に「指圧」の語彙が記載されて免許制度になり、指圧療法を研究した文献がメディアなどで採り上げられるようになってから、指圧は国内で認知されるようになった。国外でも指圧に興味を持つ人が増え、国際的に指圧学校や指圧治療院が設立、開院されている。国内の指圧治療院では、現在でも幅広い年代が来院し定期的に施術をうけている。このような指圧療法の普及には、国内外の地道な指圧の講習活動、国内での法制化とともに、指圧治療をうける患者の認識が大きく関わっていることが明らかになった。




私達は指圧刺激の効果について、心拍数、末梢循環(脈波波高、皮膚温、筋血液量)、血圧、脊柱の可動性を指標に研究を進めてきた。その反応は刺激後における心拍数の減少および刺激中の指先脈波の波高値減少1)、刺激中および後での血圧下降2)、刺激後に踵部の皮膚温上昇3)、刺激直後における皮膚温が上昇しているものは筋血液量が低下し、皮膚温の下降しているものは筋血液量が増加するといった報告をした4)。また、脊柱の柔軟については背部指圧刺激によって指床間距離(FFD)が改善し5)、腹部や鼠径部の指圧刺激によっても立位体前屈が改善した6)。私達は指圧刺激が循環器系への作用および立位体前屈への影響を確認してきた。 脊柱の動きは屈曲、伸展、左右側屈、左右回施といった自由度を持っている。それら個々の椎間は小さな可動域であるが、関与する関節で総合的に大きな可動域になることが知られている6)。その関節を補助・補強している筋は背部および腹部の指圧刺激で筋緊張の緩和により脊柱可動域が高まることを示してきた6、8、9)。











測定原理は上下の棘突起間を結んだ線に対する垂線がなす角度をSegmental angleとし、スパイナルマウスRが記録したデータをコンピュータに入力し、前屈・後屈の矢状面彎曲を抽出した。


  1. 脊柱傾斜角度: 第1胸椎と第1仙椎を結んだ直線で、総合的可動域の尺度を示す。その直線が鉛直線に対してなす角度で表せる。
  2. 胸椎後彎角度: 第1~第12胸椎まで、つまり胸椎全体の彎曲を表す。
  3. 腰椎前彎角度: 第1~第5腰椎まで、つまり腰椎全体の彎曲を表す。
  4. 仙骨/骨盤傾斜角度: 仙骨の傾斜角度が計測されるが、仙骨は仙腸関節により骨盤の一部となるため、骨盤傾斜角度に相当する。










無刺激群と刺激群の群間に対する刺激前後では、各測定角度(脊柱傾斜角度、胸椎後彎角度、腰椎前彎角度、仙骨/骨盤傾斜角度)を一般線型による二元配置分散分析、Bonferroni多重比較で解析した。無刺激群及び刺激群の刺激前後では、各測定角度を一元配置分散分析、Bonferroni多重比較で 分析した。また、解析ソフトはSPSS Ver.15を用いて危険率5%以下を有意とした。












刺激種類では無刺激群   と刺激群に差がなく(p=0.823)、刺激前後については差がなかった(p=0.413)。








前屈による刺激群では刺激前64.00±16.31度に比べて刺激後64.90±17.57度に変化がな   かった(p=0.585)。





指圧刺激群の脊柱の可動域は刺激前32.87±8.60度、刺激後―35.37±9. 73度で有意に可動域が増加した(p=0.008)。


後屈による刺激群では刺激前2.10±13.50度に比べて刺激後2.20±15.23度に変化がなかった(p= 0.947)。


後屈による刺激群では刺激前-14.67±8.30度に比べて刺激後-13.17±9.52度 に変化がなかった(p=0.292)。


後屈による指圧刺激群の刺激前後では刺激前-19.27±7.66度に比べて刺激後-23. 70±11.55度が増加した(p=0.006)。


本研究は鼠径部に対する指圧刺激が脊柱可動域変化を検討するものであった。その結果、後屈時による脊柱可動域では刺激間での刺激前後に相違(交互作用)を示した。指圧刺激による変化では脊柱可動域が増加し指圧刺激を行わない脊柱可動域は減少するものであった。また、後屈時の骨盤(仙骨傾斜角度)では刺激間での刺激前後に相違(交互作用)を示し、指圧刺激で骨盤可動域が増加し指圧刺激を行わない骨盤可動域には変化がなかった。 脊柱可動域は胸椎、腰椎、骨盤といった個々の関節が関与し、その関節の屈曲および屈伸の累積可動域が250度に柔軟性のある人で得られる最大可動域になると示している7)。


白田ら12)は18歳から28歳の89名を対象にスパイナルマウスを用いて立位姿勢を分析している。前屈時の男性97.1±16.0度、女性96.1±18.2度で、後屈時の男性-40.1±12.8度、女性-38.0±9.0度であった。本研究の前屈時では無刺激時の刺激前」113.97±13.87度、指圧刺激時の刺激前113.83±13.14度であり、後屈時は無刺激時の刺激前-34.47±8.66度、指圧刺激時の刺激前-32.87±8.60度であった。このことから先行研究である宝亀らや白田らと本研究の対象者へ前屈時による脊柱可動域が高かった。また、後屈時による脊柱可動域では先行研究による宝亀らや白田らと類似していると思われた。 本研究の刺激対象部位である鼠径部では腰部横突起から起始する大腰筋、腸骨から起始する腸骨筋が大腿骨小転子に筋が停止している。この筋作用は股関節の屈曲(前屈作用)が起こるが、それら筋の緊張緩和は後屈時を助長できると考えられる。このことから鼠径部指圧刺激では骨盤可動性の増加に伴い、脊柱後屈可動域の増加が惹起されたと考えている。



健常成人30名を対象とした今回の実験でスパイナルマウスRを用いて計測した脊柱と各部位の前屈可動域および後屈可動域を指標に検討した結果を得た。 鼠径部指圧刺激は骨盤可動性の増加に伴い、脊柱後屈可動域の増加が起こった。



  1. 小谷田作夫他:指圧刺激による心循環系に及ぼす効果について、東洋療法学校協会学会誌22号:40~45、1998
  2. 井出ゆかり他:血圧に及ぼす指圧刺激の効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌23号:77~82、1999
  3. 月足宏法他:腰背部の指圧刺激による下腿部・足部皮膚温の変化、東洋療法学校協会学会誌31号:133~137、2007
  4. 蒲原秀明他:末梢循環に及ぼす指圧刺激の効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌24号:51~56、2000
  5. 衛藤友親他:指圧刺激による筋の柔軟性に対する効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌27号:97~100、2003
  6. 宮地愛実他:腹部指圧刺激による脊柱の筋の柔軟性に対する効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌29号:60~64、2005
  7. 萩島秀男(監訳)、嶋田智明(訳)、I.A.Kapandji:カンパンディ関節の生理学 体幹・脊柱、医歯薬出版株式会社:38~39、東京、1995
  8. 浅井宗一他:指圧刺激による筋の柔軟性に対する効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌25号:125~129、2001
  9. 田附正光他:指圧刺激による脊柱の可動性及び筋の硬さに対する効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌28号:29~32、2004
  10. 石塚寛他:指圧療法学、国際医学出版株式会社:40~102、東京、2008
  11. 宝亀登他:スパイナルマウスによる日本人健常成人の姿勢分析、東日本整形災害外科学会雑誌16巻2号:293~297、2004
  12. 白田梨奈他:スパイナルマウスを用いた青年期の立位姿勢の評価、山梨大学看護学会誌5巻2号:13~18、2007


(特)日本指圧協会理事 師範 原田隆弘

昔あんま「上(かみ)・下(しも)」と云う言葉が良く使われて、その言葉通りの施術が行われていたと云われる。 我々指圧師の治療は全身指圧、局所指圧と云う言葉があり、昔の上・下に良く似ている。しかし我々の治療は原則として全身指圧と云うことになっている。 その方法は上(仰)臥、横臥、座位、立位などがあり、その状態によって臨機応変に施術することが肝要である。 即ち我々の指圧は相手方(患者)に治療を施し、自分の治癒能力を喚起させることが最大の目的であるため、おのずと全身治療が必要となってくる。 人間の体を上下に分けると上体と下体、左右に分けると右半身と左半身と云うことになる。左右の場合はほぼ同じ場所に同じ骨・筋肉・つぼが位置するが、上下の場合は流れが重要となってくる。

  1. 上半身とは臍を中心として上部、従って頭部、頚部、肩、腕、胸部、脊柱部(背部)、腰部、上腹部等である。
  2. 下半身は臍を中心に下側、下腹部、臀部、恥骨部、大腿部、下腿部、足などがそれである。



  1. 頭痛
  2. 頚部痛
  3. 肩こり、肩はり
  4. 肩甲間部痛
  5. 胸部の痛み
  6. のどの痛み
  7. 背中の痛み
  8. 上腹部の痛み
  9. 肩、腕の痛み
  10. 上腕、前腕、手の痛み



  1. 頚部については、むち打ち症、捻挫、寝違い、頚部をとおる諸器官の反射痛
  2. 肩、腕については、五十肩(肩関節周囲炎)、石灰質の沈着症など
  3. 肩甲間部については、ギックリ背中(激痛)など
  4. 胸部については大胸筋から三角筋にかけての痛み、胸骨のゆがみ等
  5. 上腹部の痛み(胃痙攣)、内臓反射痛等
  6. 肩頚腕症候群、慢性疲労症候群等

A) この症状は上半身に関連することが大であるが、下半身にも関連することがあるので注意が必要である。

B) 症状としては後頚部、横頚部の痛み、肩から腕にかけての痛み、指先へのしびれなどが主たるもので、これを肩 頚腕症候群、これに似た症状で慢性疲労症候群と云う病名がある。これは全身に症状が出て特に脊柱を中心とし た背部に強い硬直(硬結)と痛みが出る。別名ストレス症候群とも呼ばれる現代病で、自律神経と疲労に非常に深く 関連する。

C) 原因は非常に複雑で、疲労(過労)頚椎の変形やずれ等によって筋肉や神経の圧迫により血流が悪く、リンパ液 の働き、神経の働きが正常でなくなる症状である。

D) 関連する部位は特に上体の各部位、頭部、頚部、肩、腕、脊柱の骨や筋に出ることが多いとされている。従って 我々指圧師にとって非常に重要で、且つ治療の対象となる病変であると思われる。




  1. 変形性肩関節炎または症
  2. 肩関節の拘縮
  3. 石灰質沈着症
  4. 頚腕症候群からくるもの
  5. 軟骨の付着





前述の骨の場合と同様、頭、頚、肩、腕、肩甲間部、胸部などの部位にすべて関連する、特に指圧師はこの部位の 筋肉、腱、靱帯が治療の対象となる。


胸部 胸鎖乳突筋、広頚筋、大胸筋、上腕二頭筋、大円筋、烏口腕筋などがあり、これ等筋肉のほかに腱、靱帯にも深く関連をしている。


頚部肩から上腕、肘関節、手首迄の筋肉腱靱帯、それに胸部の大胸筋、肩甲側の棘 上筋、棘下筋、脇の下(えっか部)が大切である。


  1. 帯が結べない場合; 腎兪、大腸兪、肩貞、天宗、ひじゅ、臑兪
  2. 上と横にあがらない場合; 天柱、肩井、肩髃、ひじゅ、肩貞
  3. 髪とかせない場合; 肩井、肩髃、ひじゅ、天宗、中府
  4. 腕に痛みとしびれがある場合; 風池、天柱、完骨、天てい、缼盆、中府などで
    1. 親指側; 肩髃、曲池、手の三里、合谷
    2. 中指側; 曲池、曲沢、げき門、内関
    3. 小指側; 少海、神門





本校ではこれまで第22回~31回の本学会誌において、循環器系1~4)(心拍数及び血圧の減少、末梢の筋血液量の増大及び皮膚温の上昇)、筋骨格系4~8)(筋の柔軟性の工場・脊柱の可能性の工場)、消化器系9~10) (消化管運動の亢進)への指圧刺激による効果を報告してきた。 佐藤ら9)、黒澤ら10)は下腿部及び腹部への指圧刺激により消化管運動が促進すると報告している。その結果をふまえ、今回は刺激部位を前頚部とし、消火管運動及び循環器へどのような影響を及ぼすかを検討したので報告する。












心電図第Ⅱ誘導を導出し、心電図のR波をトリガーとした瞬時心拍数(以下、心拍数)を心拍タコメーター (AT-601G' 日本光電製)によって算出した。


蠕動運動の際に伴う、胃平滑筋細胞の電位(ERA)の大きさを示す指標。胃電図(二プロ社製)により計測される 生データをWBFA法でスペクトル解析し、遅波(0~2cpm)、正常波(2~4cpm)、速波(4~9cpm)、の3群に分類 し、それぞれの周波数帯の電位の変化を表した。





被験者の頭部後方より、頚動脈三角内にある頚動脈上に近い胸鎖乳突筋の内側縁を左母指圧で1点圧3秒5分の通常圧法を行った。(図2) 圧の程度は被験者が気持ちいいと思える程度(快圧)で実施した。




a) 安静15分(仰臥位)
b) 施術5分
c) 安静15分(仰臥位)


a) 覚醒状態であること
b) 体動がないこと
c) 周囲が静寂であること





刺激前1分間の平均値をコントロール値(cont.)として、刺激中1分(St.1')、2分(St.2')、3分(St.3')、4分(St.4')、5 分(St.5')、刺激後1分(Af.1')、3分(Af.3')、5分(Af.5')、10分(Af.10')、15分(Af.15')、をそれぞれ比較した。


刺激前5分間の平均値をコントロール値(cont.)として、刺激中(st0-5')、刺激直後(Af.0-5')、刺激5分後(Af.6- 10')、刺激10分後(Af.11-15')の平均値と比較した。


血圧、心拍数、胃電図の経時的な変化を一般線形型による一元配置分散分析、Bonferroni多重比較で解析した。また、解析ソフトについてはSPSS Ver.15を用いて危険率5%以下を有意とした。














遅波、正常波、速波ともに有意な経時的な変化はみられなかった。 指圧刺激による胃電図の遅波、正常波、速波に交互作用はなかった。(図7)









また、小谷田ら1)、井出ら2)は下腿部、腹部の指圧刺激において血圧および心拍数が低下することを報告している。 今回の前頚部指圧刺激において血圧、心拍数は低下するが、DPの上昇は認められなかったことから、DPに対する指圧刺激の反応は下腿部及び腹部への刺激と、前頚部への刺激では異なることが明らかになった。 今井ら11)は鍼刺激によるヒトの胃、心臓、汗腺への影響はそれぞれ独立した自律神経性の調節機構の元にあることを示唆している。今回の実験における循環器、消火器の反応も同様と考えられる。 以上の事より、前頚部指圧刺激は血圧、心拍数には影響を与えるが、胃運動には影響しないという事が明らかとなった。



  1. 前頚部への指圧刺激によって、血圧は刺激中に有意に低下した。
  2. 心拍数は刺激中に有意に低下した。
  3. ドミナントパワー(DP)の有意な変化は見られなかった。また、周波数は正常波内で推移し影響は少なかった。



  • 小谷田作夫他:指圧刺激による心循環系に及ぼす効果について、東洋療法学校協会学会誌22号:40~45、1998
  • 井出ゆかり他:血圧に及ぼす指圧刺激の効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌23号:77~82、1999
  • 蒲原秀明他:末梢循環に及ぼす指圧刺激の効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌24号:51~56、2000
  • 浅井宗一他:指圧刺激による筋の柔軟性に対する効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌25号:125~129、2001
  • 菅田直記他:指圧刺激による筋の柔軟性に対する効果(第2報)、東洋療法学校協会学会誌26号:35~39、2002
  • 衛藤友親他:指圧刺激による筋の柔軟性に対する効果(第3報)、東洋療法学校協会学会誌27号:97~100、2003
  • 田附正光他:指圧刺激による脊柱の可動性及び筋の硬さに対する効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌28号:29~32、2004
  • 宮地愛実他:腹部指圧刺激による脊柱の筋の柔軟性に対する効果、東洋療法学校協会学会誌29号:60~64、2005
  • 佐藤広大他:下腿指圧刺激による胃電図の変化、東洋療法学校協会学会誌30号:34~38、2006
  • 黒澤一弘他:腹部指圧刺激による胃電図の変化、東洋療法学校協会学会誌31号:55~58、2007
  • 今井賢治他:鍼刺激が引き起こすヒトの胃電図、瞬時心拍数および交感神経性皮膚反応の変化とその機序に関する研究、明治鍼灸医学19号:45~55、1996


3期 稲場哲夫 日本指圧専門学校同窓会「会報」 第33号 平成24年5月1日発行

母 指圧操作は指圧の主体であって、片手母指圧、両母指の外側の先端をそろえて 行うハの字形両手母指圧と重ね母指圧とがある。前頚部は必ず片手母指圧で行う。また幼児の場合、全体に片手母指圧を用いる場合がある。通常、ハの字形の両手母指圧を行うが、集中圧の場合に重ね母指圧を行う。ハの字形両手母指圧は、左右5分・5分の圧でおすと皮膚を挟むことがあるので人とか入字形が良い。人、入という字の角度は45度の斜線で、一番安定感のある水平、垂直に次いで、見る人に安心感を与える、45度をあらわしているのである。指圧おいても人・入字形両手母指での垂直圧が一番姿勢が安定して良くきくのである。

上・中・下とおす場合に、中は人・入字形の45度垂直圧がいいのだが、上部をおす場合に人・入字の角度を鋭角(母指をタテ目にそろえる)この指の構えをかまきり型、また人・入字の角度を鈍角(母指を横にそろえる)指の構えをがま型とし、指圧のおし方として、かまきりおし、がまおしとする。かまきりおしでは肘を脇腹から遠ざける肘をはったおし方である。(上:かまきり 中:45度 下:がま)







指圧を理解しない人々の中には、指圧はあん摩の中の圧迫法だと誤解しているようだが、これは根本的な間違いである。圧迫法だと思うから強くおせば良いと考え、遂には棒切れでも良いという考えになるのである。 指圧はあくまでも読んで字のごとく指でおすのである。指は生命であり人間に意思と実行を代表するものである。修練された指圧師の一圧の中には、おすことも、揉むことも擦ることも或いは引くことさえも含まれていて、患部の状況に応じ千差万別化の診断即治療が行われるものである。

この指圧の極意を会得し指圧の醍醐味を満喫できる境地に達するには、ただただ一心不乱・・・指圧の真髄を求め行ずることである。是非ガンバッテ勉強していただきたい。 指圧療法は、病気を癒してくれるばかりでなく、健康力と生命力をよみがえらせ安静を要する病人にはそのような手当てを、軽い病気にはそのような治療を、また病気の予防にはそのような健康法を、随時随時適宜に施すことができる理想的な予防医学でもある。






身も心、耕す技(わざ)に意味あふれ 生きて行く道光りかがやく



単純、徹底、極限、無我・・・我を忘れておす指に ひびくは奇しき力ぞや

指圧のスローガンに、指圧の心 母ごころ おせば生命の泉わく というのがある。この母ごころというのは、相手の身になって思いやる心である。思いやりの心が大切なのである。指圧療法はこうした「愛」のしるしから出発している。ゆえに指圧する心には愛がなければならない。それは人と人の心のふれ合いである。




本校ではこれまで第22回~34回の本学会誌において、循環器系1~4) (心拍数及び血圧の減少、末梢の筋血液量の増大及び皮膚温の上昇)、消化器系4~6) (消化管運動の亢進)への指圧刺激による効果を報告してきた。 そして、昨年度7)より電子瞳孔計を用い、瞳孔直径に及ぼす指圧刺激の効果の検討を開始し、その第1報として、腹部の指圧刺激の効果について報告した。
その結果、腹部指圧刺激によって瞳孔直径が有意に縮小することが明らかとなった。本年度はこの結果を踏まえ、瞳孔直径に及ぼす指圧刺激部位の違いを検討す る目的で、前頚部・下腿外側部に指圧刺激を行い、瞳孔直径に及ぼす効果について見当したので報告する。














被験者に対し、事前に実験内容を説明し同意の上で、体調、眼の疾患などについて問診した。21名の被験者が、前頚部指圧刺激を行う者(以下、前頚部刺激 群)と下腿外側部指圧刺激を行う者(以下、下腿外側部刺激群)、指圧刺激を行わない者(以下、無刺激群)の3種類の介入を、日を変えて実施した。電子瞳孔 計の測定は被験者を仰臥位にして、床から高さ250cmの天井に設置した直径1.5cmのマーキングを実験中に目視させた。


被験者を仰臥位にて、3分間の開眼安静とし、安静後、前頚部に3分間の指圧刺激をした。刺激後、再び3分間    の安静を行った。計測は計9分間、瞳孔直径を測定した。











前頚部刺激ではcont(Bf.60)に比べて、刺激後30秒(Af.30)(p=0.002)、60秒(Af.60)(p=0.004)、90秒 (Af.90)(p=0.00)、120秒(Af.120)(p=0.001)、150秒(Af.150)(p=0.00)、180秒(Af.180)で 有意に縮瞳した。
前頚部刺激ではcont(Bf.60)刺激後30秒(Af.30)(p=0.004)、60秒(Af.60)(p=0.012)、90秒(Af.90)(p=0.00)、120秒 (Af.120)(p=0.00)、150秒(Af.150)(p=0.001)、180秒(Af.180)(p=0.012)で有意に縮瞳した。


瞳孔直径は、交感神経(頚部交感神経)支配の瞳孔散大筋と、副交感神経(動眼神経)支配の瞳孔括約筋によって調節される。本実験で観察された指圧刺激によ る縮瞳反応は瞳孔括約筋支配の副交感神経の興奮、瞳孔散大筋支配の交感神経の抑制の両方またはどちらか一方の結果、生じたと考えられる。
高位中枢 の関与する瞳孔反応においては交感神経が関わることが指摘されてきたが9~10)、Ohsawa H11)、志村ら12)は、麻酔下のラットへの鍼通電刺激やピンチ刺激による反射性散瞳は頚部交感神経切断によって影響されないことから副交感神経が抑制 されて散瞳が起こることを確認しており、体性感覚刺激に対する瞳孔反応において副交感神経が重要な役割を果たしていることもまた報告されている。種差、麻 酔の影響、明順応・暗順応下の違いなどもあるため、今後、詳細な検討が必要である。




  • 小谷田作夫、他:指圧刺激による心循環系に及ぼす効果について、東洋療法学校協会学会誌22号;40~45、1998


愛泉治療道院院長 愛泉指圧学校校長 因泥徳彦氏
「PacificPress」 491号 May1,2008



「先生には大変可愛がっていただきました。日本の学園に残り、教師になる道もあったでしょうが、海外で指圧を広めたいという先生の願いを素晴らしいと思い、お役に立ちたかったのです。浪越先生の息子さんの徹先生とわたしは仲が良く、彼と一緒に世界各地で指圧のセミナーを行っていました。1974年にバンクーバーで指圧のセミナーがあり、彼が使節団長、私が副団長でした」 1994年に死去した徹氏は、海外での指圧指導のネットワーク作りに熱心で、今夏で15回目になる国際指圧大会の礎を築いた人物だ。同大会には毎回アメリカを含む世界中から、600人もの指圧師が集まる。 「再びバンクーバーで開かれたセミナーに呼ばれ、その帰りにハワイを訪れたのです。1975年でした」。その時、ハワイには指圧が無いから広めたらいいという薦めを受け、一旦帰国して、同年永住を覚悟して再びハワイに。 「本当にお世話になり、後で永住権のスポンサーになってくれたのは山崎菊代さんという方でした。面識もなかったわたしに『たくさんの人のスポンサーになってきましたが、あなたが最後です』といって、スポンサーになってくれました。菊代さんのお嬢様の、ハワイ大学のビートレス山崎博士も、心配して指圧のクラスを手伝って下さいました。もう一人、ダニエル松陰さんもスポンサーになってくれました。

この方たちのご恩は忘れられません。人間は絶対に恩を忘れてはいけない。平井隆三さん(ハワイタイムス元編集主幹)、当時の有吉知事にもお世話になりましたね。それから指圧に世界で始めて保険をかけて下さった、野口アンド・アソシエーツの野口英夫氏にも御恩を感じています」 指圧業を営むためには、まずアメリカのマッサージ師技術試験に合格し、資格を取得しなければならない。「1回目はね、落ちちゃいました」と笑う。試験の英語がわからなかったからだ。2度目で合格した。「つまり、やる気の問題なんですよ」という。その後、山崎さんらの助力を得て、1976年に永住権を取得した。1977年には、手技療法講師資格者にも認定された。

「こうして助けてくれる人が居たのも、わたしが指圧を広めるという一つの道に思い定めて、他に目もくれず一心不乱にやってきたからだと思います」と、この道を歩いてきたことに運命的なものを感じているという。 「そのころ教えをいただいていた、八神道の日野尊元先生(道主)という方が居ましてね。『君は、指圧一筋にやっていけば、その道では世界で何人と勘定される部類の人になれる。そして日本に居らず、デカイ国に行きなさい』と言われた。スポンサー探しなども言われた通りになりましたよ」 ホノルルでの施療者としても指導者としても、出発点になったのは、同年にハワイ大学マノア校のキャンパスセンターで、ノンクレジット(学位取得外)の講座で指圧を教えたことだ。 「たいへん好評をいただいたんですよ。それで、言葉が通じなければ通訳をいれればいい。ここでやっていける、という気持ちになりました」 「77年3月に愛泉治療道院を開設しました。ぼくはこのインターステイトビルの1番古いテナントですよ。出来たばかりの時にはいって、このフロアには誰もいなくてがらんとしていた。しかも最初は、広告の電話番号が間違っていたため誰もお客が来なかった。仕方ないからビーチに泳ぎに行っていましたよ。開業を知っている人たちも、電話が通じないのは、きっと3月3日の開業が間に合わなかったから、4月3日に開業なんだろうとのんきに構えていたのです。そのうちに、山崎さんの姪御さんが、『あなたの電話、連絡が取れないわよ』と血相変えて駆けつけてくださった」 1977年9月には愛泉指圧学校も開校した。

「治療だけに専念したほうがお金を得るためには良かったかもしれませんが、浪越先生の教えを広めたいという気持ちがあったので、学校もすぐ開きました」 前年のハワイ大学での講座の生徒の口コミで、すぐに生徒が17人も集まった。それ以来、今日まで同校には、460人余りが入校してきている。入学した人のほとんどは、州の免許を取得した。開校当時は120時間を3ヶ月程度で終えるカリキュラムだったが、州の免許のために学ばなければならない事項が増えたため、現在では200時間以上のコースになっている。この学校の卒業者は、州免許の実技試験は免除されている。 「しかし免許をとったといっても、指圧を施療して、お客さんの身体に実際に効果があって、はじめてその人の仕事がビジネスになるわけです。だから、治療道院で見習い期間を設けています。実質、全部で10ヶ月から1年ぐらいのコースになっていますね」 また、他のマッサージ学校で習うなどして、州のマッサージ師資格を取っている人は、実技のみのコースを取ることもできるという。愛泉指圧学校のコースの一部には、ハワイ大学医学部と共同でのセミナー部分があり、セミナーの修了書が発行される。

因泥院長は指導者としての責任を重んじ、積極的に教え子に関わっていく姿勢を強く見せる。 「教えるということは、『教えて』『育てる』というこですからね。種を撒き、その人たちが育ち、枝を伸ばしていく。ぼくは指圧はどうあるべきかということを、いろいろうるさく言うから、敬遠して来ない人も居ます。逆に入学したいと言われても、事情を聞くと真剣さが足りないとこちらからお断りする方もいますね。日本から、ここで指圧を学び、州の免許を取りたいという若い人も来ます。でもわたしは受け入れません。ハワイで過ごしたいだけという動機の人が多いからです。断るとほかのマッサージ学校などに行って学ぶ人も居ますが、免許を取っても、実際にその仕事を続けることは難しいと思います。わたしは指導者として、お金もいただくのですから、無責任なことはしたくないのです。指圧の心とは人を癒す心であり、生徒の成長が自分の満足になります」 「ここで免許を取った人には、免許をとってからもいろいろ教えを求めてくる人も居て、その人たちとは互いに協力しています。でも音信不通になってしまう人も居ますね」 卒業生のうち、100人ほどがハワイで開業している。因泥院長自身は「シアツ・マッサージ」という呼び方は、不正解だからしない。手技療法として、指圧と、マッサージや按摩、骨接ぎ、灸などがあるが、それぞれに異なった種類の療法だからだ。だが仕事として指圧専門だけでやっていけないので、双方をやっている人も居るという。

「指圧とは、手指と掌を使ってするものです。また、たとえば按摩は、静脈を心臓に向けて、血液を心臓に送り返すように押すものですが、指圧は動脈を、心臓から離れる方向に、心臓から流れ出す血液の力を増すように押し、身体の生命力を増進するもので、押す場所も押し方もみな違います」 院長の座右の銘の一つは、『指圧の心、母心、押せば命の泉湧く』だという。恩師浪越徳治郎師の言葉で、母校の校訓でもある。 愛泉指圧学校の卒業生のうち本土に移って営業している人も多い。

「軍隊で働いたあと、手に職をつけようと、ここに習いにくる人も居ますからね。生徒も、最初は日本人・日系人が多かったですが、ハワイアン、サモア系、黒人、白人とすべて居ます。職業も看護婦あり、建築家あり、弁護士の人まで居ますよ」 指圧で開業しなくても、自分の職業に生かしている人も多い。「また、軍人の奥さんで一生懸命に習いに来た方も居ますね。イラク出兵などで、旦那さんが任地に行き、ここに帰ってきたとき、指圧をしてあげるという人も居ます」と院長。

因泥院長の活動は、これまでにホノルルの各機関や団体と協力し、ボランティア活動を行うなどして、指圧への理解を深めてきたことに大きく支えられている。 「1978年から、ホノルル・マラソンで、米国指圧師協会と一緒に毎年指圧のボランティアをしています。完走者のみに指圧をする。今年で30回目になる予定です。ボランティアとして以前の生徒らが70人から80人手伝いに来てくれます。この人数で、700名以上、多いときには900人から1000人に指圧をするので、みんなふらふらになりますね。去年(2007年)は天候のせいで芝生が水浸しでね。開催者が『できるか』というから『できるよ。板と担架を持ってこい』といって、ちゃんとやりましたよ。誰からも苦情はでなかったですね。このボランティアを見て、東京柔道整復専門学校・学校法人杏文楽員の生徒たちも、日本からホノルル・マラソンのボランティアのために来てくれるようになりましたよ。スタディ・ツアーの一部に組みこんでいるようです」 「ハレマレマラマ老人ホーム」で1978年から13年間指圧のボランティアを行った。クアキニ病院でもボランティアを行っている。 ライオンズクラブの世界大会で施術したり、ホノルル日系商工会議所が市内の生徒を招いて行ったセミナーで、子供たちに指圧について教えたこともある。また日系第100大隊、第442部隊の退役者のためにも指圧クラスを開いた。


「一人は、なんといっても何清(ホー・チン。イリカイホテルなど数多くの事業を経営)さんです。はじめて来たときはどういう人だか判らないから、ボティーガードがあちこちに立っていてびっくりしましたよ。効果はあるか?というからじゃあ10回チャンスをくれと言いました。最初は車椅子で来ましたが、1ヶ月したら杖をついて歩いてきた。3ヶ月めからは一人で歩いて来て、半年後にはゴルフに誘われましたよ。数年して亡くなられる前にも、入院中の病院からわたしのところに直接やって来られてね。施術後に、自宅に帰ってしまうので、わたしが病院まで送っていったりしたことがあります。ほかにも、元知事やカジノのオーナー、かつての国民党政府の将軍、世界的な学者の方などいろいろな方がおいでになりましたね。石原裕次郎さんがカハラの別荘に居らしたときも、車でお迎えが来まして、週3回、4ヶ月ぐらい通いましたよ」 また、本土からハワイに来る際にアポイントメントを取って、毎年やってくる客も居る。あるニューヨークの老婦人は、1990年から毎年愛泉治療道院を訪れていると、院長はいう。

「もとはヨーロッパの方なんですが、ヨーロッパから家族が訪米中にいつも一緒にハワイに来て、彼らにも指圧を薦めてくれましたよ」 お客には因泥院長の評判を口伝えで聞いてくる人が多いが、病院から送られてくる人も居る。「ペンキを塗っている途中で、はしご上で身体が完全に固まってしまった人が居ました。救急車で病院に運ばれたんですが、そのままこちらに送られてきまして、身体をほぐすのに時間がかかりました」。その人は、あとで山のようなアンパンを差し入れてくれたという。

病院の医師が処方を指定すれば、指圧も保険の対象となる。因泥院長は、クアキニ病院で指圧のボランティアもしており、医師や看護婦も指圧を受けているので、効果をよく知っているのだということだ。 因泥院長は埼玉県人間市の出身で、ハワイ埼玉県人会の会長を1980年から務めた経験もある。また、1987年にハワイ州とホノルル市から表彰を受け、1998年にも州、市とハワイ民族衣装文化普及協会より「日本文化普及賞」を受賞した。



日本指圧専門学校編 「浪越式指圧療法 基本実技」 より抜粋








(特)日本指圧協会理事 師範 佐々木 重 雄












(特)日本指圧協会理事 指圧道師範 木下 誠



























  1. 棘突起と脊柱起立筋の一番盛り上がった所の間を、第7頚椎と第1胸椎の間から第7胸椎の棘突起の高さまで5点3回
  2. 脊柱起立筋の一番盛り上がった所を、第7頚椎と第1胸椎の間から第7胸椎の棘突起の高さまで5点3回
  3. 肩甲骨の内側縁を、内上角から下角まで5点3回
  1. 棘突起と脊柱起立筋の一番盛り上がった所の間を、第7胸椎の棘突起の高さから第5腰椎の高さまで10点3回
  2. 脊椎起立筋の一番盛り上がった所を、第7胸椎の棘突起の高さから第5腰椎の高さまで10点3回
  3. 10点を3回
  1. 放射状の一本目は、解剖学的に上方に向かって6点
  2. 2本目は、30°の角度で腸骨稜に向かって6点
  3. 3本目は、60°の角度で腸骨稜に向かって6点
  4. 4本目は、90°の角度で腸骨稜に向かって6点
  5. その後、①の6点目から④の6点目まで円の4分の1の弧を描く様に10点

[伏臥位] 基本の押し方

  1. 棘突起と脊柱起立筋の一番盛り上がった所の間を、第7頚椎と第1胸椎の間から第7胸椎の間から第7胸椎の棘突起の高さまで5点3回
  2. 脊柱起立筋の一番盛り上がった所を、第7頚椎と第1胸椎の間から第7胸椎の棘突起の高さまで5点3回
  3. 肩甲骨の内縁を、内上角から下角まで5点3回
  1. 棘突起と脊柱起立筋の一番盛り上がった所の間を、第7胸椎の棘突起の高さから第5腰椎の高さまで10点3回
  2. 脊柱起立筋の一番盛り上がった所を、第7胸椎の棘突起の高さから第5胸椎の高さまで10点3回
  3. 10点を3回


  1. 仙腸関節の所を一列目として、上方から下方へ8点
  2. ひと指外側を2列目として、上方から下方へ8点
  3. もうひと指外側を3列目として、上方から下方へ8点


池永 清 著




それでは、具体的に指圧独自の『診療』とはどういう事でしょう? 西洋医学においても又は東洋医学(中国医療)においても、まず『診断』があって『治療』があります。つまり、診断と治療は別々の行為であり診断と治療の2つの行為を総称して診療と呼びます。又、通常治療の為には事前の診断が不可欠で診断がついてはじめて治療することが出来るということになります。ところが、指圧療法の場合は、『診断即治療』ですので、施術そのものが診断であり治療です。これは事前の診断が無くても治療が可能な事を意味し、原因不明で治療法なし、ということも普通は有り得ません。禁忌症で無い限りは診療出来ます。例え病名や症状などの原因がわからなくても、基本指圧を正しく行いさえすればそれが正しい診療となり、その結果からだの免疫力が高まって症状の緩和が可能です。




池永 清 著


海外で指圧をしておりますと『指圧とは何か?』という問題が非常に重要になってまいります。日本は指圧発祥の地ですので、ほとんどの人が指圧を知っている事でしょう。又、その定義まで正確に理解していなくても、日本語(漢字)の場合指圧という単語から大体の意味は想像することが出来ます。では、海外ではどうでしょうか。現在、日本の指圧は海外でもそのまま『SHIATSU』として普及しておりますが、ローマ字になってしまうと言葉自体には意味を持たなくなってしまいますので、正しい説明が必要となります。指圧を英語に訳すと、まず『指』はfingerですが、これが『親指』となるとthumbになります。『圧』はpressureですので、finger pressureあるいはthumb‐pressureという事になり、この時点では別段難しい事はありません。





  1. 徒手を用いること。(道具はもちろんやヒジ、ヒザ、足等は使用しません)
  2. 体表を押圧する事。(もんだり、撫ぜたり、引っ張ったりはしません)
  3. 健康維持増進や疾病治療を目的とする事。(医療の一環です)


"Shiatsu technique refers to the use of fingers and the palm of one's hands to apply pressure to particular sections on the surface of the body for the purpose of correcting the imbalances of the body, and for maintaining and promoting health. It is also a method contributing to the healing of specific illnesses."














  1. 医療行為と医療類似行為の関係
  2. あん摩と指圧の関係
  3. 指圧と他の医療行為の関係
  4. 医療類似行為の修得方法と営業の情況
  5. 『あん摩、はり、きゅう、柔道整復等営業法』に伴う8年間猶予期間の解釈
  6. 指圧を除くの療術3年以内の転業又は廃業
  7. 医療類似行為の禁止

この法改正にむけての公聴会は指圧の歴史上きわめて重要なものでした。なぜならば、政府原案では『あん摩(マッサージ・指圧を含む)』という表現で、この時の法改正では政府原案通り可決されたのでありますが、ともかく史上初めて法律上に『指圧』という言葉が登場しました。そして、はやくも2年後の昭和32年には、指圧の定義を定めた厚生省の教本が発行され、更にこの時の公聴会に出席した参考人の先生方によって指圧に関する著書が次々と出版され広く世間に認知されていきました。又、日本指圧学院が正式に『厚生大臣認定・日本指圧学校』となりましたのもこの時期です。このような過程を経て、最終的には昭和39年あはき法は再び改正され、名称は『あん摩(指圧を含む)』から『あん摩マッサージ指圧師』という表現に修正されました。ここにおいて、遂に『指圧』は、日本独特の反射療法・経験療法として法的にも認知を得たのです。 昭和30年第22国会参議院社会労働委員会における、『あん摩、はり、きゆう、柔道整復等営業法』の一部改正のための公聴会での参考人の先生方の証言は、それから9年後の法改正によって『指圧』を『マッサージ』とともに『あん摩』から切り離し、それぞれ独立した別個の手技療法として改めて位置付けた、現在の『あん摩マツサージ指圧師、はり師、きゆう師等に関する法律』の根拠となっており、現在の『指圧療法』のかたちはだいたいこの9年間でほぼ決定付けられたと言えます。従いまして、この公聴会の議事内容とその後の9年間の一連の動きは、日本国内はもちろん海外での指圧普及活動におきましても、その法的裏付けも含めて指圧成立の最も重要な箇所となるに違いありません。


  1. 日本医師会専務理事          志村 国作
  2. 東京医科大学名誉教授         藤井 尚久
  3. 元横浜医科大学講師          槍物 一三
  4. 東京教育大学特設教員養成部講師    芹澤 勝助
  5. 全日本鍼灸按マッサージ師会会長    子守 良勝
  6. 日本鍼灸師会会長           花田 溥
  7. 京都府鍼灸按マッサージ師会会長    関野 光雄
  8. 全国療術協同組合理事         松本 茂
  9. 全国療術協同組合理事長        宇都宮 義債
  10. 日本指圧協会会長           浪越 徳治郎
  11. 東京大学医学部教授          三木威 勇治


この度入手いたしました議事録には、各先生方の証言が一字一句記されておりますが、その中でも注目すべき発言を挙げていきたいと思います。 まず、日本医師会常任理事の志村先生(急きょ会長の代理として出席)ですが、この当時の医師(あるいは世間一般)の一般的な認識だったのかも知れませんが、まずあん摩とマッサージが同じものであり、従って指圧も同類、つまりそれぞれの手技療法はその発生や理論に関係なく手技は手技で同類とみなされた様子です。







井沢正先生は、日本指圧学院の卒業生、即ち浪越門下生のひとりでありますが、はやくも昭和39年には、指圧治療の基本圧点が、漢方医療の経絡経穴に一致することが多いことに着目され、『按腹図解と指圧療法』を編述されました。(按腹図解は江戸時代の按摩師・太田晋斎の著) その後、同じ浪越門下生(日本指圧学校卒業生)から、『指圧療法と掌圧療法(平成6年出版)』の著者・佐藤岩冶郎(さとういわじろう)先生や、『指圧(英語版の表題は禅指圧)(昭和49年)』の著者・増永静人(ますながしずと)先生が経絡と指圧、又は経穴点と指圧のツボを結びつけた独特の理論を展開されております。又、平成15年に北米で出版された私自身の著書TsuboShiatsuでは、いわゆるツボ(反射点)を漢方医療に使われる経絡から切り離して、解剖生理学的に解明しております。




1番深刻な問題は、その教育水準がまちまちであり、更に本来の『指圧の定義』から著しく逸脱している場合があるという事です。海外で指圧をしていますと、『流派は何か?』といった意味合いの質門をよく受けます。これは、日本において、それぞれの応用指圧が本来の指圧療法とは別に並び立って定義されているかのごとく誤解されていることを意味します。もう少し具体的に言いますと、1番多いのは『浪越指圧か増永指圧か?』という質問なのですが、これは非常に的外れな質問です。なぜならば、この場合『浪越指圧』は、日本指圧専門学校で教えている厚生労働省認定の『指圧療法』を指し、このプログラムは卒業後国家試験を経て免許を受ける為のもので、合計2500時間程度の修業時間を要求されます。対して『増永指圧』は、その日本指圧専門学校の卒業生のひとりである増永静人先生によって考案された応用指圧で、海外では俗にZen-Shiatsuと呼ばれてます。 増永先生の開院した『医王会指圧センター』で開催されている講習会は、現在でも週1回/2時間半、計12週/30時間程度のもので、もちろん、プロの施術者を目指すための厚生労働省認定プログラムではありません。その他にも、日本や世界の各地で様々な応用指圧を含めた民間療法の講習会が盛んに開催されておりますが、それらの講習会は、たいてい数時間から数ヶ月程度のもので、『増永指圧』と同様、国家試験に合格してプロの施術者になるためのプログラムではありません。

ご存知のごとく、日本におきましては、プロの施術者になるためには厚生労働省に定義された『指圧療法』、つまり日本指圧専門学校等の厚生労働大臣認定校において所定の基準に沿った指圧を学ばなくてはなりません。例え、どのような応用指圧による治療を目指すのであれ、臨床の為にはまず国家試験を通った『施術者(あん摩マッサージ指圧師)』となる事が先決ですので、その為にすべての施術者がある一定の知識能力を有している事が保障される事となります。しかし法的規制の整備されていない海外では、基本となる定義された指圧の基礎や解剖生理学等の医療基礎をほとんど勉強しないままに、あるいは経絡理論を中心とした数日から数ヶ月の応用指圧の講習会を受けただけで、プロの施術者を名乗ることが可能です。このことは、施術者のレベルの低下を意味し、世界各地で(その多くは未だ民間レベルではありますが)徐々に認知されつつある指圧療法にとっては致命的な問題になりかねません。 このような状況の中、世界中の指圧施術者共通の切実な問題として浮かび上がってきたのが、世界統一資格の構築です。




指圧プラクターの名称は、1990年代後半にカナダのブリティッシュ コロンビア州(バンクーバーの位置する州)で使われたのが最初です。その後、ISA/国際指圧協会(本部・日本)の協力により、指圧資格の世界基準確立のための公式名称に認定されました。2003年末現在に於きましては、北米地区(アメリカ合衆国、並びにカナダ)、ヨーロッパ地区(EU加盟諸国)及び、日本において、登録商標としてその使用が正式に保護されております。 指圧プラクター認定のための教育水準は、日本では、あん摩マッサージ指圧師免許に準じます。その他の地域で、その国や州等の公的機関の規制が無い場合、北米では2年間2200時間、欧州では2年から3年で1600時間程度のものが指標となっております。




1912年 浪越徳治郎先生によって、その原型が創案される。
1940年 日本指圧学校が創立される。
1955年 参議院・厚生労働委員会で法制化のための公聴会が開催される。
1955年 『あん摩(マッサージ・指圧を含む)師』として法制化される。
1957年 厚生省(現厚生労働省)より『指圧の定義』が認定される。
1964年 『あん摩マッサージ指圧師』と改正される。

このように、浪越徳治郎先生によって創案された指圧を基幹として、日本の『指圧療法』が発達し民間レベルでも政府レベルでも認知されて来たことが、浪越先生をもって指圧の創始者と呼ぶ所以であります。尚、下記に述べるように昭和の中頃から多くの応用指圧が考案されましたが、その考案者のほとんどは浪越門下生(日本指圧専門学校出身者)でありした。 海外においては、他の応用指圧と区別する為『浪越指圧』と呼ばれることがありますが、上記の指圧の歴史でもわかるようにように、本来『日本の指圧イコール浪越の指圧』であるので、これは正しい表現ではありません。指圧は指圧です。




Tsubo Shiatsu(ツボ指圧)

日本で古来から『ツボ』と呼ばれる押圧点、反射点を、経絡理論から切り離して解剖生理学的に解明することを目的にしております。本来漢方医療のものであった経穴(メリディアンポイント)の科学的解明は、1980年頃に、石塚寛先生(医学博士・前徳島大学教授、現日本指圧専門学校校長)によって提唱されたのが最初ではないでしょうか。その後2003年に指圧カレッジ校長池永清(1986年日本指圧学校卒業)によって著書『Tsubo Shiatsu』が発表されました。

Meridian Shiatsu(経絡指圧)


Zen (Ioh Kai)Shiatsu(ゼン(医王会)指圧)


Tao Shiatsu(タオ指圧)


Oha Shiatsu(大橋圧)


Macrobiotic Shiatsu(マクロバイオティック指圧)

九司道夫先生(1926年生まれ)の提唱する『Kushi Macrobiotics』では、食事療法と共に、鍼灸、指圧、瞑想、漢方等の代替療法を積極的に取り入れております。アメリカバーモント州にある『Kushi Institute(non-profit educational organization)』において、Macrobiotic Career Trainingコースの科目の一つとして『Macrobiotic Shiatsu』を教えいます。





必修科目 計1700時間
指圧基礎 150時間 指圧理論・指圧実技
指圧応用 150時間 症状別施術 その他の手技療法
臨床実習 650時間
基礎医学 解剖学 300時間 生理学 300時間 病理学 150時間
その他 救急法・禁忌症・医療倫理・関係法規等
選択科目 計500時間



  • 完全図解・指圧療法 浪越徹著   日貿出版社(昭和47年)
  • 指圧の理論と実技  芹澤勝助著  医歯薬出版(昭和32年)
  • 経絡経穴と指圧療法 井沢正著   日本指圧協会(昭和47年)
  • おやゆび一代    浪越徳冶郎著 日本図書センター(平成13年再販)
  • 指壓療法      玉井天碧著  福永敷間(昭和14年)
  • 会報・指の光特定非営利団体    日本指圧協会
  • 第22回国会・参議院社会労働委員会会議録・第29号(昭和30年)